Johns Hopkine Magazine The latest from Johns Hopkins Magazine. Johns Hopkine Magazine Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Book review: Sacred Knowledge: Psychedelics and Religious Experiences <p>William A. Richards may be one of the few scientists to write, "In case you had any doubts, God (or whatever your favorite noun for ultimate reality may be) is," and not inspire an immediate eye roll. That sentence appears on a list of topics to consider in his new book, <em>Sacred Knowledge: Psychedelics and Religious Experiences</em> (Columbia University Press), and would not be unexpected in something like Jack Kerouac's <em>The Dharma Bums</em>, but in a scholarly work by a clinical psychologist at the Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center?</p> <p>Credit Richards for showing why he considers such a new-agey claim worthy of scientific reflection. Over the past 16 years, Richards and a handful of other researchers at Johns Hopkins and around the country have explored the role of entheogens—Richards' preferred term for psychoactive substances such as ayahuasca, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), and psilocybin—in treating patients dealing with addiction and terminal illness. Richards initially became interested in such work in the 1960s following his own experience under the influence of psilocybin in a clinical setting in Germany. For the remainder of the '60s, Richards continued his psychology education, eventually landing at the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center in Baltimore, where from 1967 to 1977 he investigated the role of entheogens in the psychotherapy of addiction and distress in terminal cancer patients. Between 1977 and 1999, financial and institutional support for research involving entheogens was all but suspended in the United States, as the substances were politically and culturally stigmatized.</p> <p><em>Sacred</em> is Richards' illuminating and empathetic argument that entheogens, when administered in a controlled setting and with proper clinical support, consistently produce positive results in addicts and patients facing end-of-life unrest—and that the 22-year gap in entheogen research means we're dramatically unaware of their potential uses. Part memoir, part history of entheogen research, and part philosophical meditation, <em>Sacred</em> isn't a humble call for science and medicine to take God seriously but for practitioners to consider that what their patients say following psychedelic treatment can offer insight into studying the complex psychology and science of the mind.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Book review: The Mechanical Horse: How the Bicycle Reshaped American Life <p>Margaret Guroff, A&S '89 (MA), pens a stroll through nearly 200 years of the bicycle in the United States, touching on its waxing and waning popularity over the years, the role it played in paving streets in the 19th century, and the rise of cycling for recreation and transportation in the latter quarter of the 20th century. Along the way, she highlights a number of lesser-known cycling stories, such as the 25th Infantry Bicycle Corps, a Buffalo Soldier unit that in 1897 tested the bike's potential military use by riding over rugged terrain from Fort Missoula, Montana, to St. Louis, Missouri, some 1,900 miles away—pioneering off-road riding way before dudes in California and Colorado started wanting to mountain bike. An eminently readable work of popular history.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Book review: Why We Came to the City <p>American novels exploring young people's post-collegiate life in New York City is a well-trod road. They're snapshots of a time and place as much as human stories, and <em>Why We Came to the City</em> provides a sense of what being young and living in Manhattan was like when life, and the economy, bottomed out. At the center of Why's circle of five friends is Irene, artist and gallery worker, whose radiance draws them together and whose illness upsets their tenderfooted dreams about what the future should be. Kristopher Jansma, A&S '03, does not always flesh out his occasionally flat characters, but he makes up for it with stylistic anomie, ably evoking how the most populous city in America can feel like the loneliest place on earth.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Devotion becomes opportunity <p>Though Edward C. Held, Med '26, died in 1988, he's still a beloved figure in Hempstead, New York, where he practiced medicine for nearly 60 years. He was known for making regular house calls, occasionally bringing groceries to patients who couldn't afford them. A police and fire surgeon, he would ride his bicycle to the local station every Sunday to personally deliver doughnuts. And his longtime friend Helen Duryea will never forget how Held arrived at her home on Christmas, just so he could hold her father's hand as he was dying. "He was a marvelous diagnostician," she says, "and he was very, very kind."</p> <p>Despite a 27-year age difference between Held and Duryea, the two grew close. They celebrated holidays together, and Duryea helped Held run his office in addition to her own thriving career as a real estate and insurance agent. "He really was almost a family member," she says. Neither ever married, though Held once proposed to Duryea. She declined, but they remained devoted to each other. They were so close, in fact, that Held's nieces and nephews called Duryea "Aunt Helen." To this day, she keeps in touch with many of Held's relatives.</p> <p>When Held died, he left the majority of his estate to Duryea. In turn, she knows he would be pleased with her decision to give much of that inheritance to a place that meant a great deal to him—his alma mater. In 1996, seven decades after Held graduated from Johns Hopkins, Duryea established the Edward C. Held, M.D., Scholarship Fund with a gift of $100,000. Now 87, and with the goal of building the scholarship to at least $1 million during her lifetime, Duryea recently set up several Johns Hopkins charitable gift annuities, directing any money left over after her death to be added to the fund. Last year, the Held endowed scholarship granted about $7,500 in aid. But the hope is that the fund will one day cover the full cost of one student's tuition, which currently clocks in at $48,750. "He'd be proud that he was enabling some student to become a doctor, who might not have been able to go to medical school otherwise," Duryea says.</p> <p>So far, 12 students have received awards from the Held fund and gone on to work throughout the country in specialties like pediatrics, infectious disease, emergency medicine, and radiation oncology. Recipient Khoi D. Than, A&S '03, Med '07, was born to Vietnamese immigrants and is now an assistant professor of neurosurgery at Oregon Health & Science University in Portland, Oregon. He says his training would not have been possible without Duryea's gift. "You hear about students who don't go to as reputable a medical school and graduate with $200,000 or $300,000 in debt," he says. "The fact that this scholarship, along with other grants, supported half of my education means that the amount of loans I have is about half the average med student's. That's a huge deal."</p> <p>Roy Ziegelstein, vice dean for education at the School of Medicine, says need-based scholarships are essential to attract bright students from a variety of backgrounds. According to the school, 41 percent of candidates who chose not to attend Hopkins in a recent application year cited financial concerns as the primary reason. Educating a varied group of aspiring doctors, clinicians, and scientists, Ziegelstein says, is crucial in order for the health care workforce to best treat an increasingly diverse patient population. He points to studies showing that a more diverse physician workforce leads to improved access to health care and more culturally competent care, among other benefits. Work by Lisa Cooper, vice president for health care equity for Johns Hopkins Medicine, also suggests that access to a more diverse physician workforce may lead to greater patient satisfaction and better health outcomes. Ziegelstein notes, too, that exposure to cultural differences in medical school helps broaden the perspective of all future physicians, an outcome that should have benefits for patients and for our society. "Diversity doesn't only produce a stronger school. I believe it eventually produces a stronger and more excellent medical community," he says.</p> <p>Duryea even wonders if the scholarship could help lead to the next great medical discovery. "Some of these people may find the cure for cancer," says Duryea. "Maybe without this money, they wouldn't have that opportunity."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Class notes <h4>1947</h4> <p><strong>Leon J. Condon, A&S '47</strong>, is 93 and in good health. Retired since 1997, he travels the world on cruise ships with his significant other, Rosemary Barnhart.</p> <h4>1953</h4> <p><strong>Joseph L. Soley, A&S '53</strong>, continues to work building retail and commercial structures with his sons and grandsons in Portland, Maine. He welcomes news from former classmates and friends made while living in the Baltimore area, where he operated Maryland Commercial Contractors.</p> <h4>1957</h4> <p><strong>Robert E. Baensch, A&S '57</strong>, directs a consulting firm that works with publishing companies in more than 35 countries. He was recently recognized by the State Administration of Press, Publications, Radio, Film and Television of the People's Republic of China for presenting more than 85 management seminars to nearly 3,500 publishers over the past 15 years.</p> <p><strong>Vivian Adelberg Rudow, Peab '57 (Cert), '60, '79 (MM)</strong>, continues to compose and perform music worldwide. She has composed original piano music for a concert in April in Hong Kong to celebrate the 150th anniversary of Lewis Carroll's <em>Alice's Adventures in Wonderland</em>. A concert tour will benefit Music Children Foundation, which provides free musical training to Hong Kong's underprivileged children.</p> <h4>1964</h4> <p><strong>Charles S. Bryan, A&S '64</strong>, <strong>Med '67</strong>, has spent the last 40 years practicing medicine in South Carolina while achieving national distinction as a clinician, researcher, medical school department chair, and author. In 2013 he received the Order of the Palmetto, South Carolina's highest civilian award. He received a 2015 Distinguished Alumnus Award from Johns Hopkins.</p> <h4>1966</h4> <p><strong>Judah C. Sommer, A&S '66</strong>, retired after serving as senior vice president of government affairs for UnitedHealth Group since 2007.</p> <h4>1967</h4> <p><strong>Arthur Weinman, A&S '67</strong>, reports that his firm, Arthur Weinman Architects, received a 2015 Historic Fort Worth Preservation Project Award for the restoration of the west entry and lawn of the Tarrant County Courthouse.</p> <h4>1969</h4> <p><strong>Steven B. Oppenheimer, A&S '69 (PhD)</strong>, and his wife, Carolyn, made a gift to Johns Hopkins that will fund 50 annual biology student recognition awards. He is a professor of biology and director of the Center for Cancer and Developmental Biology at California State University, Northridge.</p> <h4>1971</h4> <p><strong>David Lance Clark, A&S '71</strong>, retired from the United Nations in 2012 after 22 years in humanitarian work. He and his wife, Nancy, are currently directing the Ticonderoga Revitalization Alliance from their home in upstate New York and are helping coordinate the second Trekonderoga Star Trek convention.</p> <p><strong>Marshall Kapp, A&S '71</strong>, directs the Center for Innovative Collaboration in Medicine & Law at Florida State University College of Medicine.</p> <h4>1974</h4> <p><strong>Peter Byeff, Med '74</strong>, directs the George Bray Cancer Center of the Hospital of Central Connecticut, which received the Outstanding Achievement Award from the American College of Surgeons in 2014. Byeff received a 2015 Heritage Award from Johns Hopkins.</p> <p><strong>Mindy G. Farber, A&S '74</strong>, announces the marriage of her daughter, Emilie S. Adams, A&S '06, to Andres Potes. The ceremony, held September 12, 2015, was officiated by Claire E. Edington, A&S '06, and attended by several Hopkins alumni.</p> <h4>1977</h4> <p><strong>Robert Babb, A&S '77</strong>, head baseball coach at Johns Hopkins since 1980, has established the team as a powerhouse, with more than 1,000 victories and 27 players earning Academic All-America honors. Babb won a 2015 Distinguished Alumnus award from Johns Hopkins.</p> <h4>1978</h4> <p>**Herbert S. Cromwell Jr., Ed '78 (MEd), retired last year from the Community Behavioral Health Association of Maryland after 38 years in public mental health.</p> <p><strong>Paul Scott Denker, A&S '78</strong>, is an endocrinologist who has been practicing and teaching medicine in Florida since 1985. He and his wife have two children.</p> <h4>1981</h4> <p><strong>Josiah Gluck, A&S '81</strong>, was awarded a 2015 Emmy in the category of Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Variety Series or Special for his work mixing music on "The Saturday Night Live 40th Anniversary Special."</p> <p><strong>Donald F. Schwarz, Med '81</strong>, <strong>SPH '82</strong>, served as Philadelphia's deputy mayor for Health and Opportunity from 2008 to 2014 and earned a 2015 Woodrow Wilson Award from Johns Hopkins.</p> <h4>1982</h4> <p><strong>Olivia D. Carter-Pokras, SPH '82</strong>, <strong>'94 (PhD)</strong>, was promoted to full professor of epidemiology at the University of Maryland School of Public Health in August 2015.</p> <p><strong>Jeong H. Kim, Engr '82, '89 (MS)</strong>, executive chairman and co-founder of Kiswe Mobile, received a 2016 Horatio Alger Award, given to leaders who have overcome adversity to achieve success.</p> <h4>1983</h4> <p><strong>Wei-Ping Andrew Lee, Med '83</strong>, is the Milton T. Edgerton, MD, Professor and chair of the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. A hand surgeon and translational researcher, he received the Andrew J. Weiland Medal for Outstanding Research from the American Society for Surgery of the Hand in 2014. He received a 2015 Distinguished Alumnus Award from Johns Hopkins.</p> <h4>1984</h4> <p><strong>Robert Clayton, A&S '84</strong>, received a 2015 Heritage Award from Johns Hopkins for service to the university, its students, and alumni. For more than 25 years, he has volunteered for the university, including serving as president of the Johns Hopkins Society of Black Alumni since 2002.</p> <h4>1986</h4> <p><strong>Roy Malone Hodges, SAIS Bol '86 (Dipl)</strong>, <strong>A&S '87</strong>, is taking a year off from running a real estate company in Carmel-by-the-Sea, California, to travel the world with his wife, Aleix, and sons, Bryce and Colin. Follow the family's trip blog at</p> <h4>1988</h4> <p>Kenneth W. Kinzler, Med '88, co-director of the Ludwig Center at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, is one of 80 new members elected to the National Academy of Medicine in 2015.</p> <h4>1989</h4> <p><strong>Joanne Berger-Sweeney, SPH '89</strong>, is the first woman, first African-American, and first neuroscientist to serve as president of Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut. She received a 2015 Distinguished Alumnus award from Johns Hopkins.</p> <p><strong>Alicia Harvey-Smith, Ed '89 (MS)</strong>, was recently elected to the board of directors for the American Association of Community Colleges. She is the president of River Valley Community College in Claremont, New Hampshire.</p> <h4>1990</h4> <p><strong>Robert Cantrell, Peab '90 (MM)</strong>, <strong>'92 (GPD)</strong>, bass-baritone singer, performed in December 2015 as a soloist in Robert Kapilow's <em>The Polar Express</em> with the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra, the Maryland State Boychoir, and conductor Ken Lam, Peab '07 (MM).</p> <h4>1992</h4> <p><strong>Elmer E. Huerta, SPH '92</strong>, directs the Washington Hospital Center Cancer Preventorium, where he dedicates himself to promoting disease prevention, especially among poor and uninsured Latinos. He received a 2015 Distinguished Alumnus award from Johns Hopkins as well as an honorary doctorate degree from his alma mater, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos in Peru.</p> <h4>1993</h4> <p><strong>R. "Ray" Wang, A&S '93</strong>, <strong>SPH '95</strong>, recently celebrated five years working for his Silicon Valley–based research firm, Constellation Research. The analyst and best-selling author is happily married to Tina Wu, A&S '96. They have two children.</p> <h4>1994</h4> <p><strong>Jenny C. Lin, A&S '94</strong>, <strong>Peab '98 (AD)</strong>, performed a concert of Philip Glass' piano works at the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City in November 2015. Her new release, <em>The Spirio Sessions</em>, features music for two pianos with jazz pianist Uri Caine.</p> <p><strong>David Vicic, A&S '94</strong>, is a professor and chair of the Department of Chemistry at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.</p> <h4>1995</h4> <p><strong>Charlene Mendoza, A&S '95</strong>, took second place in the 2015 Escalante-Gradillas Prize for Best in Education contest administered by She is chief education officer of the Arizona College Prep Academy in Tucson.</p> <h4>1996</h4> <p><strong>Tarek J. Helou, A&S '96</strong>, is an assistant chief in the U.S. Department of Justice's Foreign Corrupt Practices Act unit. He previously worked as an assistant U.S. attorney in San Francisco, where he worked with fellow alumnus <strong>S. Waqar Hasib, SAIS Bol '97 (Dipl)</strong>, <strong>A&S '98</strong>. Helou lives in Virginia with his wife and three sons.</p> <p><strong>Melanie Harris Higgins, A&S '96</strong>, <strong>SAIS '96</strong>, became head of the U.S. Consulate General in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2015.</p> <p><strong>Prerna Mona Khanna, SPH '96</strong>, is a visiting clinical associate professor in the Department of Medicine and an associate in the Center for Global Health at the University of Illinois. The disaster relief volunteer received a 2013 American College of Physicians Volunteerism Award and a 2015 Global Achievement Award from Johns Hopkins.</p> <p><strong>Daniyal M. Zuberi, A&S '96</strong>, was named to the Royal Society of Canada College of New Scholars, Artists and Scientists. He is RBC Chair and associate professor of social policy at the University of Toronto.</p> <h4>1997</h4> <p><strong>Jane Callen, A&S '97 (MAG)</strong>, is an economic information officer for the U.S. Commerce Department and a longtime volunteer medic. After the 2015 earthquake in Nepal, she joined an international medical relief team that set up a makeshift hospital on a mountaintop.</p> <p><strong>Katherine D. Prescott, A&S '97</strong>, joined the Silicon Valley law firm of Miclean Gleason as of counsel.</p> <h4>1999</h4> <p><strong>Molly Ness, A&S '99</strong>, is an associate professor of childhood education at Fordham University and an author.</p> <h4>2000</h4> <p><strong>Brendan P. McConville, A&S '00</strong>, an associate professor of music theory and composition at the University of Tennessee, was named a Fulbright Scholar for this academic year. He is lecturing and doing research in Pescara, Italy.</p> <p><strong>Bryan M. McMillan, Bus '00, '02 (MBA)</strong>, and <strong>Karina A. Lipsman, Engr '12 (MS)</strong>, have launched M&L Global Consultancy, which helps firms and individuals develop international market entry strategies for their products.</p> <h4>2001</h4> <p><strong>Bonnie A. Schwartz, A&S '01</strong>, married Gray Nolan in Kinsale, Cork, Ireland, on August 19, 2015. <strong>Martha Milton Sklavos, A&S '01</strong>, was matron of honor.</p> <h4>2002</h4> <p><strong>Pilar Ortega, A&S '02</strong>, is an emergency medicine physician, medical Spanish educator, and textbook author living in Chicago.</p> <p><strong>Selena Ramkeesoon, Bus '02 (MBA)</strong>, joined Abt Associates in July 2015 as vice president for strategic communications within the global research firm's U.S. Health division.</p> <p><strong>Michael Edward "Eddie" Walsh, A&S '02</strong>, <strong>SAIS Bol '03 (Dipl)</strong>, <strong>SAIS '04</strong>, is founder and president of the Pacific Islands Society, which received the Top-Rated award by GreatNonprofits in 2015. The organization develops and implements projects that inspire and empower Pacific Islanders around the world.</p> <h4>2003</h4> <p><strong>Michael J. Angelucci, Peab '03, '06 (MM)</strong>, won the 2015 American Prize in Piano Performance, professional solo division. The soloist, collaborative artist, and educator is currently recording his first solo disc.</p> <p><strong>Shannon A. Slater, A&S '03, '09 (MAG)</strong>, is a senior breast cancer research program coordinator at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, where she has worked since 2004.</p> <h4>2004</h4> <p><strong>Claudia Kretchmer, A&S '04 (MA)</strong>, co-president of the Johns Hopkins Phoenix regional chapter, opened the flagship Steven Kretchmer jewelry store in October 2015. The brick and mortar location in Scottsdale, Arizona, honors the legacy built by her father, jewelry designer Steven Kretchmer, who died in 2006.</p> <p><strong>Joseph Manko, Ed '04, '07 (MAT)</strong>, principal at Liberty Elementary School in Baltimore, was selected in 2015 to be one of three principals in the U.S. to join the Principal Ambassador Fellowship Program with the U.S. Department of Education. He also received a 2015 Outstanding Recent Graduate Award from Johns Hopkins.</p> <h4>2006</h4> <p><strong>Lisa Firnberg, A&S '06</strong>, is director of professional services at Social Solutions, a software company in Baltimore. Her husband, <strong>Elad Firnberg, Engr '13 (PhD)</strong>, is founder and CEO of Revolve Biotechnologies, a startup supported in part by Johns Hopkins Technology Ventures and FastForward.</p> <p><strong>Peter Lee, Peab '06, '08 (MM)</strong>, vocalist, was featured on the cover of Muzik magazine's November 2015 issue, in which he discusses his career in classical music, pop, and jazz.</p> <p><strong>Gregory Reid Wiseman, Engr '06</strong>, is a test pilot in the U.S. Navy and an active NASA astronaut who served as flight engineer aboard the International Space Station for Expedition 41 in 2014. He received a 2015 Distinguished Alumni Award from Johns Hopkins.</p> <h4>2009</h4> <p><strong>Young H. Joo, A&S '09</strong>, serves as the aide-de-camp to the U.S. Army Special Operations Command foreign policy adviser.</p> <p><strong>Trevor Macenski, A&S '09 (MS)</strong>, an environmental scientist, became a principal of Stantec, an environmental services practice, in November 2015.</p> <h4>2010</h4> <p><strong>Mark C. Bicket, Med '10</strong>, was named the 2015 Fellow of the Year by the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. He is an assistant professor in the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.</p> <p><strong>Erin Hill, A&S '10</strong>, and <strong>Wesley Sudduth, A&S '10</strong>, married on August 15, 2015. Earlier in the year, Hill became director of advocacy for DC SAFE, an organization that supports survivors of domestic violence. Sudduth received his law degree and works as an associate for Venable.</p> <h4>2011</h4> <p><strong>Max K. Dworin, A&S '11</strong>, was named to the Class of 2015 New York City 40 Under 40 Rising Stars by City & State, a website devoted to New York City and state government and politics. Dworin is vice president for communications for the Partnership for New York City, a nonprofit membership organization committed to enhancing innovation in the city.</p> <p><strong>Chelsea Rinnig, A&S '11</strong>, will finish her service as a Peace Corps volunteer in Zambia in April. For two years, she has worked in a rural community, teaching conservation farming and agroforestry to increase food security.</p> <h4>2012</h4> <p><strong>Hannah K. Carter, Med '12</strong>, received a 2015 Outstanding Recent Graduate Award from Johns Hopkins. An assistant professor of medicine at the UC San Diego School of Medicine in the Division of Medical Genetics, she received a National Institutes of Health Early Independence Award for her cancer research in 2013.</p> <p><strong>Nate Hughes, SPH '12</strong>, is the head of strategic partnerships and medical operations at MyLife Recovery Centers, which has launched a drug and alcohol addiction recovery plan that consists of an implanted medication, Naltrexone, and psychosocial counseling to address the public health problem of addiction.</p> <p><strong>Jacques-Pierre Malan, Peab '12 (GPD)</strong>, '13 (GPD), was a finalist in January's "Getting to Carnegie" cello competition started by pianist Julian L. Gargiulo, Peab '97 (MM).</p> <p><strong>Tolbert G. Nyenswah, SPH '12</strong>, helped fight the Ebola outbreak in Liberia, where he was in charge of the country's Incident Management System in 2014. He received a 2015 Outstanding Recent Graduate Award from Johns Hopkins.</p> <p><strong>Sarah M. Richardson, Med '12 (PhD)</strong>, was awarded a 2015 L'Oréal USA For Women in Science fellowship to advance her postdoctoral research. She is a fellow in synthetic biology at the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab's Joint BioEnergy Institute and at the University of California, Berkeley.</p> <p><strong>Anisha Singh, A&S '12</strong>, and <strong>Jonathan White, Engr '12</strong>, married in Sylva, North Carolina, on September 6, 2015.</p> <h4>2013</h4> <p><strong>M. Veronica Sanchez, Nurs '13 (MSN)</strong>, works for the University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center as a quality and project manager for a variety of oncology care initiatives. She also teaches at Miami Dade College.</p> <h4>2014</h4> <p><strong>Jennifer Nicole Campbell, Peab '14, '15 (MM)</strong>, pianist, worked with Charles Street Sound recording service, co-founded by Daniel Rorke, Peab '15 (MA), to record two works by Baltimore composer and Army ranger veteran Mark Maarder, who studied at the Peabody Preparatory before serving in Iraq. The recordings of "Storm" and "Nocturne" may be found on YouTube.</p> <p><strong>Alexandra Razskazoff, Peab '14 (BM)</strong>, soprano, received a favorable review in The New York Times for her November 2015 performances of James Primosch's From a Book of Hours with the Juilliard Ensemble in New York.</p> <p><em>CORRECTION:</em> In the winter issue, a Class Note from <strong>Leslie S. Leighton, Med '78</strong>, incorrectly stated the subject of his doctoral dissertation. Leighton's dissertation focused on the decline of coronary heart disease mortality in the U.S., not a decline in coronary heart disease.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Curt Carpenter discovers you can return home again <p>When Curt Carpenter's daughter called in spring 2014 to describe the six-bedroom rowhouse she found for rent just off the Homewood campus, he had one question: Was his waterbed still there?</p> <p>Roughly 30 years after Carpenter, A&S '85, moved out of the University Parkway rental, his daughter, Johns Hopkins senior Elaine, was coincidentally moving in. Though the home has been updated—new floors, central A/C—Carpenter says it maintains its charm. "It's a quirky house, as all Baltimore rowhouses are," he says. "They all have odd openings and rooms. My room had a couple of really strange closets in it, just odd cubbyhole-type closets, and a balcony off it."</p> <p>As part of his 30th reunion celebration, Carpenter and his former roommates had a few beers on the front porch of the place where they used to host get-togethers and project 16 mm movies. "It brought back a flood of memories," he says. "It's really neat to share that experience with my daughter."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 In memoriam <p><strong>Daniel H. Labby</strong>, HS '40, August 30, 2015, Portland, Oregon.</p> <p><strong>Benjamin Berdann</strong>, A&S '42, September 7, 2015, Baltimore.</p> <p><strong>Elmer Allison "Al" Ford</strong>, Engr '42, September 2, 2015, Salt Lake City.</p> <p><strong>Jerry Williamson Horn</strong>, Nurs '42 (Dipl), September 13, 2015, Mt. Lebanon, Pennsylvania.</p> <p><strong>David H. Nelson</strong>, Engr '43, September 27, 2015, Pikesville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Stephen B. Andrus</strong>, Med '44, September 17, 2015, Cohasset, Massachusetts.</p> <p><strong>Helen F. Frisk</strong>, Nurs '47 (Dipl), November 11, 2015, Silvis, Illinois.</p> <p><strong>King McCubbin Jr.</strong>, Engr '47, A&S '51 (PhD), February 5, 2015, State College, Pennsylvania.</p> <p><strong>Charles J. Summers</strong>, Engr '47, March 30, 2015, Scottsdale, Arizona.</p> <p><strong>Randolf R. Fisher</strong>, A&S '48, August 25, 2015, Baltimore.</p> <p><strong>Helen Mata Gugerty</strong>, Nurs '48, August 9, 2015, Locust Valley, New York.</p> <p><strong>Ruth Lord Tuch</strong>, SAIS '48, July 26, 2015, Bethesda, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Keefer S. Stull Jr.</strong>, Engr '49, October 1, 2015, Towson, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Maurice L. Wolpert</strong>, A&S '49, September 30, 2015, Whippany, New Jersey.</p> <p><strong>Isabella Steenburg Collins</strong>, Med '50, HS '51, October 5, 2015, Asheville, North Carolina.</p> <p><strong>Robert W. Davies</strong>, Engr '50 (MSE), July 21, 2015, Cockeysville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Kenneth R. Hannahs</strong>, Engr '50, October 28, 2015, Bel Air, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Harry N. Keller</strong>, Engr '50, '56 (DrEngr), August 27, 2015, Center Valley, Pennsylvania.</p> <p><strong>Robert E. Ketcham</strong>, A&S '50, August 10, 2015, Mt. Laurel, New Jersey.</p> <p><strong>Francis H. Gay</strong>, A&S '52, August 1, 2015, Boulder, Colorado.</p> <p><strong>Thomas A. Stamey</strong>, Med '52, HS '56, September 4, 2015, Portola Valley, California.</p> <p><strong>Adelene L. Darr</strong>, Nurs '53, October 10, 2015, Fremont, Ohio.</p> <p><strong>T. Scott McCay</strong>, Med '53, August 20, 2015, Jackson, Mississippi.</p> <p><strong>Joseph F. Strohecker</strong>, Engr '53, August 5, 2015, Doraville, Georgia.</p> <p><strong>Herbert B. Williams</strong>, A&S '55, October 27, 2015, Annapolis, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Janet L. Ehrlich</strong>, Nurs '56 (Dipl), November 11, 2015, Hilton Head Island, South Carolina.</p> <p><strong>Andrew F. Conn</strong>, Engr '57, '59 (MSE), '64 (PhD), November 6, 2015, Baltimore.</p> <p><strong>Finton P. Cordell</strong>, A&S '57, October 4, 2015, Lutherville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Donald C. Gallagher</strong>, Engr '57, September 3, 2015, Everett, Pennsylvania.</p> <p><strong>Dean J. Limbert</strong>, A&S '57, October 15, 2015, Boardman, Ohio.</p> <p><strong>Joel I. Glasser</strong>, A&S '58, '66 (MLA), August 15, 2015, Annapolis, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>James M. Bisanar</strong>, HS '60, November 13, 2015, Easton, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Frederik C. Hansen Jr.</strong>, Med '60 (PGF), HS '60, August 23, 2015, Ruxton, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Norig G. Asbed</strong>, Engr '61 (MSE), A&S '73 (MS), October 1, 2015, Naples, Florida.</p> <p><strong>Robert J. Walinchus</strong>, Engr '61, '66 (PhD), July 12, 2015, Wheaton, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Patricia Charache</strong>, Med '62 (PGF), September 12, 2015, Towson, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Augustine A. Strejcek</strong>, Engr '63, October 27, 2015, Millersville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Mary L. Fishpaw</strong>, Ed '64 (MEd), September 26, 2015, Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania.</p> <p><strong>John E. Carnell</strong>, Ed '65 (MEd), November 9, 2015, Cockeysville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>David B. Kratz</strong>, Engr '65, August 26, 2015, Clarksville, MD.</p> <p><strong>Frederick G. "Bunky" Traut Jr.</strong>, Engr '65, September 20, 2015, Bel Air, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>John M. Clayton III</strong>, Engr '66 (Cert), '72, August 1, 2015, Forest Hill, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Gerald A. Posen</strong>, HS '66, June 6, 2015, Ottawa, Ontario.</p> <p><strong>Ralph K. Barringer</strong>, Ed '68, August 10, 2015, Salisbury, North Carolina.</p> <p><strong>Carl G. Finstrom</strong>, A&S '68 (MLA), October 18, 2015, Williamsburg, Virginia.</p> <p><strong>Charles A. Braslow</strong>, A&S '69, Med '73, August 28, 2015, Newport News, Virginia.</p> <p><strong>Lawrence R. Donohue</strong>, HS '69, August 1, 2015, Seattle.</p> <p><strong>Richard S. Lancaster</strong>, Engr '69 (Cert), '73, October 20, 2015, Ijamsville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Dwight Y. King</strong>, SAIS '70, September 10, 2015, DeKalb, Illinois.</p> <p><strong>Marianito R. Montero</strong>, SPH '70, October 13, 2015, Hilliard, Ohio.</p> <p><strong>Csaba B. Hanyi</strong>, Engr '71 (Cert), '78, '85 (MS), October 29, 2015, Towson, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Wilson S. Davis Jr.</strong>, Bus '72, September 17, 2015, Fallston, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Amy Apfel Kass</strong>, A&S '73 (PhD), August 19, 2015, Washington, D.C.</p> <p><strong>Evans "Roddy" Dick III</strong>, A&S '74, September 9, 2015, Gloucester, Massachusetts.</p> <p><strong>Jeffrey C. Roche</strong>, Med '76, HS '80, SPH '95, October 19, 2015, Millersville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Noel B. Tulipan</strong>, A&S '78, Med '81, HS '85, November 2, 2015, Nashville, Tennessee.</p> <p><strong>Ruth Hale Wales</strong>, A&S '78 (MLA), July 23, 2015, Frederick, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Mark A.C. Hoeplinger</strong>, Med '83 (PGF), HS '84, October 8, 2015, West Seneca, New York.</p> <p><strong>Neal W. Sanstrom</strong>, Engr '84, October 8, 2015, Mariottsville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Michael Guido</strong>, A&S '89, October 7, 2015, Queensbury, New York.</p> <p><strong>Harry A. Bowman</strong>, Engr '91 (BA/MA), December 2, 2015, Upland, California.</p> <p><strong>Dorothy Jean Dustmann</strong>, Ed '92 (MS), August 29, 2015, Catonsville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Lithium L. Lin</strong>, Med '95, November 7, 2015, Salem, New Hampshire.</p> <p><strong>Robert T. Smeak</strong>, Ed '95, (MS), August 28, 2015, Williamsport, Pennsylvania.</p> <p><strong>Edwin L. "Chip" Butler</strong>, Engr '97 (MS), September 22, Centreville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Adam Schumacher</strong>, A&S '09 (MA), August 9, 2015, Bismarck, North Dakota.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Amy Soergel, A&S '07, owns a grocery store that caters to organic, gluten-free, and allergen-free diets <p>Amy Soergel, A&S '07, was sick. A lot. For close to nine years she suffered from a host of symptoms that led to diagnoses from depression to irritable bowel syndrome. She had her gall­bladder removed. Then, shortly after graduating with a degree in public health studies, she was diagnosed with celiac disease and ulcerative colitis, and her life's trajectory changed forever. She returned to the family farm just north of Pittsburgh, where she opened Naturally Soergel's, an organic, gluten-free, and allergen-free market. Her mission: to bring a larger variety of hard-to-find foods to those who require special diets.</p> <h3>What made you decide to open a gluten-free market?</h3> <p>After they did a genetic marker test that showed I did have celiac, I went gluten-free. About five months later, I was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. I realized dairy was giving me flare-ups with the colitis, so I removed dairy. And eggs were the final thing I removed that really helped. I started to realize there was nothing in my area—no Trader Joe's or Whole Foods—that catered to people like me who were on a special diet. My family has a farm market, and I was ordering food for myself through the market's food distributor. My dad said to me one day, "What about opening a store on the farm that would allow people like yourself to have access to the food they need?" It seemed like a good idea because there was a need in the community and there was nothing else like it. I decided to give it a shot.</p> <h3>How do you handle competition from other stores and online?</h3> <p>We do now have a Whole Foods in the area, so there is competition, but I try to put that aside. My mission is to help people on special diets who can't find the foods their diets require. Maybe another store might have one or two flavors of a product or item whereas I'll carry the entire line. They have more options and variety here. And yes, you can buy anything online, but you may have to order $100 in products just to make it worth the shipping. It's more of an experience to shop here. You can ask if a product is good or recommended. And we're very honest.</p> <h3>Do you engage a lot with costumers personally?</h3> <p>I host what I call "Gluten-Free 101," which is a free store tour where I give customers the benefit of my experience with how to prepare certain foods, my favorites, staff favorites, how to make cold and hot pastas, how to prepare a mix without eggs. I spend a lot of time on the floor talking to customers.</p> <h3>What is a challenge that's unique to your business?</h3> <p>When people have allergies, you have to be 100 percent sure that what you're putting on your shelves is right. If you say something is nut-free chocolate, it better be absolutely nut-free. Several years ago, I ordered gluten-free stuffing for the holidays and I put them out on the floor. That very same day someone bought some. Turns out, the company hadn't sent us their gluten-free version. Thankfully, we have a computer system and I could find the woman who bought it. I called her immediately. Had she eaten that, not only is my name on the line but she could have gotten very sick, and that's scary. I have to protect the people who trust me to keep them safe.</p> <h3>What's the biggest mistake you've made?</h3> <p>At the very beginning, I didn't know how to manage people who were older than me. I was only 23. That was a difficult time for me as I learned to work with people, understand what they were going through and how we could work together, but also to be a manager, to be a leader. My father taught me everything I know.</p> <h3>If you had to do it all over again what would you do differently?</h3> <p>One of our biggest things is education and how to educate our customers. I would have been ready with more staff training because they wanted it and I wasn't ready at the beginning. Customers come in and want to know what is good, how to cook something, why they should be using a certain ingredient. I didn't realize at the time that vendors would come to the store and do training relevant to their products that gives the staff just the right amount of information they need to answer customer questions. The resources were always there, but I didn't know it until a few years ago.</p> <h3>Are you wary that the gluten-free marketplace is oversaturated?</h3> <p>I think the hype about it has diminished and it's more of an everyday mainstay. The product itself has come so far very quickly. The quality and consistency have improved. Take bread; it used to be really dry and crumbly. You had to toast it just to get it to hold together. Now you can have a hamburger on a bun that's soft, that doesn't fall apart, that doesn't have an aftertaste. It's hard to not find some kind of gluten-free effort in most stores. On my end, that's competition, but as a consumer it's nice. There are lots of food trends, but I think gluten-free is here to stay.</p> <h3>What's one of the best things that's come from opening the store?</h3> <p>My husband is celiac and has been gluten-free since he was 5. In 2008, before we met, I had a poster in the farm market about how I was opening the store, and his mother went home and told him this cute girl was opening a gluten-free store. He dropped in the first weekend I was open. He asked me on a date, and the rest is history. He co-founded a gluten-free brewery in 2014 about 20 minutes down the street from me. So he's living the entrepreneurial lifestyle, too, and together we're riding the wave.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Retail therapy <p>I didn't get a job right after college, at least not the kind my oversized Johns Hopkins diploma suggested I would. Goalless and burnt out as graduation approached, I applied for a part-time internship at a magazine, moved to Brooklyn, and bounced around from temp gig to temp gig. Then, after a few months, fate intervened—while perusing job listings on Craigslist one day, I spotted an ad for an open call at a popular retail chain in Manhattan.</p> <p>I donned my finest spandex, stood on line outside a store at 10 a.m. one summer morning, and got hired on the spot.</p> <p>It became the best job I'll ever have. Here, there were no tests to study for, no deadlines, no books to read or skim sufficiently to fool the T.A. There were no windowless libraries or cubicles on B-level. There was no need to think. Instead, there were sweaters to fold, skirts to hang, $8 pairs of underwear that needed their tags tucked in. Middle-aged women bought yoga pants two sizes too small, returning a week later to scream at me about the refund policy. "Me and my daughter wouldn't have bought these leotards if we knew we couldn't bring them back," a woman barked at me one afternoon. I apologized, offered store credit, and corrected her in my head. My daughter and I.</p> <p>My co-workers were hip boys who played in bands in Brooklyn. They were models, artists, and photographers. No one talked about "the future." The future meant nothing more than getting paid and going home.</p> <p>My college friends complained about their demanding corporate jobs, but my only job requirement was to look cute in chiffon. They talked about how lonely it was in the "real world," but I stayed out until 4 a.m. on Wednesday nights with my new friends.</p> <p>The love didn't last. I didn't want a "real" job, but I began to fear I'd never get one. My future seemed chained to a cash register. I started to fall behind the friends who were made miserable by their burgeoning careers. I stayed a child while they got approved for credit cards, went on vacation, and stopped having night sweats over their dwindling bank accounts. It was safe behind the register, but I knew I couldn't stay there.</p> <p>I got lucky. I started picking up regular freelance writing jobs. I managed to bid farewell to retail. Three years later, I still make sure all my shirts are folded with even hems.</p> <p>I miss the small power I wielded in my domain behind the register. It was the best job I've ever had. But I'd never, ever want to have it again.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 New arrival <p>Andrew Motion, the English poet who joined the Writing Seminars as a Homewood Professor of the Arts in fall 2015, says he looks forward to discovering what his writing might look and sound like after exposing his ear and mind to American culture and speech. He's already proved himself one of the more versatile authors and critics of English poetry. Motion began publishing his works in the early 1970s, wrote a few collections of critical essays in the 1980s, and by the 1990s was writing celebrated biographies of poets, including <em>Philip Larkin: A Writer's Life</em>, published in 1993, and <em>Keats</em>, published in 1997.</p> <p>Motion was named the poet laureate of the United Kingdom in 1999 after the death of Ted Hughes; he occupied the post for a decade, and during that time he partnered with sound engineer Richard Carrington to create The Poetry Archive, an impressive online library of English-language poets reading their works, and educational tools for the teaching and studying of poetry. Motion can be heard reading his own verse at his Poetry Archive's author page.</p> <p>After retiring from the poet laureate position in 2009—he was knighted that year for his services to literature at the Queen's Birthday Honors—Motion took his writing into new territories. In 2012, he published both <em>The Customs House</em>, a reflective, impressionistic collection of war poetry; and <em>Silver</em>, a swashbuckling sequel of sorts to Robert Louis Stevenson's <em>Treasure Island</em>, picking up about three decades after the adventure of that late-19th-century novel. This year has seen the release of <em>The New World</em>, a page-turning follow-up to <em>Silver</em> involving its two main characters, and <em>Peace Talks</em>, an arresting new poetry collection.</p> <p>He says the decision to come to the United States was a strategic one. "I was offered a fantastic job with very good students and very nice colleagues, one of whom I knew, [Writing Seminars co-chair] Mary Jo Salter, who made me feel like this was going to be a happy home," Motion says. "I thought, too, that if I understood the job right, it might leave me more time to do my own work than I've ever had before. And at 63, that's the sort of thing that you start to mind about. I'm not quite an old man yet, but I'm not a young man anymore either, and I've seen too many people freeze and diminish in the last third of their lives. I thought to give myself new challenges, new opportunities, new faces, new ways of thinking about things, and to open myself up to the great, strange Niagara roar of American poetry, would be a pretty interesting thing to do."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Big data and the brain <p>The Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute at Johns Hopkins University, launched in early 2016, brings an interdisciplinary group of researchers together to investigate the workings of the brain. Funded by a joint $20 million commitment by the Kavli Foundation and Johns Hopkins, the institute integrates neuroscience, engineering, and data science to understand the relationship between the brain and behavior.</p> <p>Experimental tools in neuroscience are yielding larger and more complex data sets than ever before, but the ability of neuroscientists to manage and mine these data sets effectively has lagged behind, as has their ability to model the behavior of cells and circuits in the brain. The new institute aims to change that by drawing on the university's expertise in big-data analytics.</p> <p>The Kavli Foundation's mission is to advance science for the benefit of humanity, promote public under­standing of scientific research, and support scientists. "This new institute will bring together some of the world's finest researchers in neuroscience in a fresh, dynamic way that is aimed at advancing our understanding of the relationship between the brain and behavior," says Robert W. Conn, Kavli's president and CEO. "This kind of research is essential to finding new approaches to better understand the mind and protecting it from disorders ranging from depression to Alzheimer's."</p> <p>The 45 initial members of the institute—including director Richard L. Huganir, professor and director of the Department of Neuroscience at the School of Medicine, and co-director Michael I. Miller, professor of biomedical engineering—are drawn from 14 different Johns Hopkins departments and the Applied Physics Laboratory.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Their stories, their lenses <p>Young people in Baltimore City will have a chance to express themselves and build their résumés with the launch of Johns Hopkins University's youth filmmaking program. Made possible by a $1.6 million grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, the Baltimore Youth Documentary and Film Arts Program will allow students and young adults from throughout the city to document their worlds on film. Through workshops on moviemaking and photography, students will create art while they learn technical skills and get professional experience that could lead to long-term jobs.</p> <p>"Video is such a powerful contemporary medium for people to tell their stories and share their ideas," says Johns Hopkins University President Ronald J. Daniels. "Our city suffers from so many different solitudes that do not connect to one another. We believe that by giving cameras and skills to our kids, we create an avenue for empowerment and a foundation these young people can use to help unify our city."</p> <p>The workshops, which start this spring, are designed for Baltimoreans ages 16 to 29, including ex-offenders. Johns Hopkins faculty, Baltimore filmmakers, and artists will teach the courses, along with faculty from Morgan State University and Maryland Institute College of Art. Classes will take place after school, in the evening, and on weekends in city neighborhoods so students can access them easily. Possible workshops include documentary photography, in which students tell stories through photos; guerrilla filmmaking, which will allow students to create an entire film, start to finish, in just a few days; and an oral history of incarceration, in which students interview former prisoners about life behind bars and how it has affected their lives. Creations from each workshop will be archived online and showcased in periodic public exhibitions.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Road work <p>After a one-year delay, Johns Hopkins University is moving forward with a yearlong, $15 million project to improve San Martin Drive, the scenic, tree-lined road that winds around the back of the university's Homewood campus. The university first announced plans to upgrade the 0.9-mile thoroughfare in early 2015. The goal was to make San Martin even more attractive and, especially, to make it safer for pedestrians, runners, bicyclists, and drivers. Construction is now expected to conclude in April 2017.</p> <p>The project was delayed after neighbors in the Remington Avenue area voiced concerns about the impact of losing roughly 30 on-street parking spaces. The Johns Hopkins offices of Facilities and Real Estate and Government and Community Affairs worked with the community to address the lost parking and other issues, such as lighting, snow removal, security, and a redesigned new gateway providing a better transition between the neighborhood and the campus. Learn about the improvements at <a href=""></a>.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Funding curiosity <p>Scott Bailey, an associate professor in the Bloomberg School of Public Health's Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, says his work figuring out the nuts and bolts of cellular structures that nobody has seen before is driven by "just the curiosity of it all." That curiosity has led Bailey to breakthroughs in visualizing the atomic structure of a large multiprotein complex with a key role in bacterial immunity. It's set the stage for the development of new drugs to prevent antibiotic resistance and will foster progress in genome editing strategies that may someday lead to precision treatments for genetic disorders. It also recently earned Bailey the second Johns Hopkins University President's Frontier Award.</p> <p>"This award is to just dream and follow wherever curiosity leads him in advancing his research agenda," university President Ronald J. Daniels said after he and Provost Robert C. Lieberman surprised Bailey in his lab with the $250,000 award. The award was made possible through a donation from university trustee Louis J. Forster, A&S '82, SAIS '83, and Kathleen M. Pike, SAIS Bol '81 (Dipl), A&S '82, '83 (MA); it will recognize one person each year for five years with funding for their research expenses. When announced in 2014, the program was characterized as an investment in a researcher's potential, rather than a lifetime achievement award.</p> <p>Three outstanding 2016 finalists are also being recognized with $50,000 from the university to fund research and advance academic pursuits. Those three finalists are Xin Chen in the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences; Michael Hersch in the Peabody Conservatory; and Shanthini Sockanathan in the School of Medicine.</p> <p>Bailey says he is already thinking about what his team can do with the money, including "the ways we can push into new ground, to take on more risky projects. Government funding is more narrowly defined in what you can do. With this you can go after a problem and really take risks with it. That is where the breakthroughs tend to come."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 In memoriam <p>Sidney Mintz, co-founder of the Johns Hopkins Department of Anthropology and the William L. Straus Jr. Professor Emeritus, died December 27, 2015, of head trauma related to a fall he experienced while traveling in New Jersey with his wife, Jacqueline. He was 93 years old.</p> <p>Mintz was an anthropologist known best for his studies of Caribbean societies, the anthropology of food, and Afro-Caribbean traditions. Since his first fieldwork in Puerto Rico in 1948, much of his research had focused on connecting the anthropological concept of culture with historical materialist scholarship. He was the author of a number of books, including <em>Sweetness and Power</em>, a groundbreaking study on the history of sugar and its role in the history of early capitalism; and <em>Three Ancient Colonies: Caribbean Themes and Variations</em>, which was recently published.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Abbreviated <p>Four new Bloomberg Distinguished Professors have been appointed across Johns Hopkins, bringing to 19 the number of BDPS as of March 1. <strong>Charles Bennett</strong>, a professor of physics and astronomy and a Gilman Scholar in the <strong>Krieger School of Arts and Sciences</strong>, is the first BDP to hold a joint appointment in the Applied Physics Laboratory, as a senior scientist. He will direct Space@Hopkins, which will unify space-related activities across the institution. <strong>Nilanjan Chatterjee</strong> has appointments in the <strong>Bloomberg School of Public Health</strong>'s Department of Biostatistics and in the <strong>School of Medicine</strong>'s Department of Oncology. He joins Johns Hopkins from the National Cancer Institute, where he was chief of the Biostatistics Branch of the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics. <strong>Andrew "Andy" Feinberg</strong>, director of the Center for Epigenetics, is the King Fahd Professor and a Gilman Scholar in the <strong>School of Medicine</strong>, with a joint appointment in the <strong>Bloomberg School</strong>'s Department of Biostatistics. His Bloomberg Distinguished Professorship adds appointments in the <strong>Bloomberg School</strong>'s Department of Mental Health and the <strong>Whiting School of Engineering</strong>'s Department of Biomedical Engineering. <strong>Rexford Ahima</strong> has appointments in the schools of <strong>Medicine</strong>, <strong>Public Health</strong>, and <strong>Nursing</strong>. He will serve as director of the Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism and leader of the Diabetes Initiative. He joins Johns Hopkins from the University of Pennsylvania.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p><strong>Lisa Cooper</strong>, a professor of general internal medicine and director of the Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities, has been named to the new position of vice president for health care equity for Johns Hopkins Medicine.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p><strong>Karl Alexander</strong>, a professor emeritus of sociology in the <strong>Krieger School</strong>; <strong>Doris Entwisle</strong>, a research professor of sociology who died in 2013; and <strong>Linda Olson</strong>, a retired associate research scientist in the <strong>School of Education</strong>'s Center for Social Organization of Schools, were honored with the Grawemeyer Award in Education for the book they co-authored, <em>The Long Shadow: Family Background, Disadvantaged Urban Youth, and the Transition to Adulthood</em>. The award brings a prize of $100,000.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>In its selections for 100 Notable Books of 2015, <em>The New York Times Book Review</em> included <em>$2.00 a Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America</em>, co-authored by sociologist and Bloomberg Distinguished Professor Kathryn Edin, of the <strong>Krieger School</strong> and the <strong>Bloomberg School</strong>.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>Four Johns Hopkins researchers are among 347 new fellows from around the world elected to the American Association for the Advancement of Science. They are <strong>Kevin Hemker</strong>, a professor of mechanical engineering in the <strong>Whiting School</strong>; <strong>Michael Matunis</strong>, a professor of biochemistry and molecular biology in the <strong>Bloomberg School</strong>; <strong>Alan Scott</strong>, a professor of molecular microbiology and immunology in the <strong>Bloomberg School</strong>; and <strong>Beverly Wendland</strong>, dean of the <strong>Krieger School</strong> and a professor of biology.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p><strong>Jacquelyn Campbell</strong>, a professor and researcher in the <strong>School of Nursing</strong>'s Department of Community-Public Health, is featured in "Confronting Violence, Improving Women's Lives," a display, traveling banner, and online exhibition by the National Library of Medicine. The display will crisscross the United States over the next four years.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p><strong>Peabody</strong> faculty artist and cellist <strong>Amit Peled</strong> was named one of 30 Professionals of the Year in <em>Musical America</em>'s December 2015 Special Report. Readers were asked to nominate "key influencers" who are making a difference in the profession by virtue of their position, creativity, and/or dedication.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p><strong>Kenneth Kinzler</strong>, <strong>Se-Jin Lee</strong>, and <strong>Bert Vogelstein</strong>, all professors in the <strong>School of Medicine</strong>, have been elected fellows of the National Academy of Inventors. Kinzler and Vogelstein are co-directors of the Ludwig Center for Cancer Genetics and Therapeutics at the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center; Lee is a professor of molecular biology and genetics.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p><em>U.S. News & World Report</em> ranked three Johns Hopkins programs among the best in the country in its annual lists of the nation's top online graduate programs. Information technology ranked No. 5, nursing No. 6, and engineering No. 11.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p><strong>Marc Greenberg</strong>, a professor of chemistry in the <strong>Krieger School</strong>, received the 2016 Arthur C. Cope Late Career Scholars Award from the American Chemical Society for his outstanding achievements in the field of organic chemistry.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>Johns Hopkins led U.S. higher education in research and development for the 36th straight year, spending a record $2.242 billion in 2014, the most recent fiscal year for which nationwide data is available. The 2014 total is 3.4 percent larger than Johns Hopkins' research spending in fiscal 2013, according to the annual National Science Foundation report on institutional R&D.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>Two <strong>Whiting School</strong> faculty members in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering have been elected to the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering's College of Fellows. They are <strong>Jeffrey Gray</strong>, a professor, and <strong>Sharon Gerecht</strong>, the Kent Gordon Croft Investment Management Faculty Scholar and an associate professor. AIMBE Fellows are nominated by their peers and are considered the most accomplished and distinguished leaders in medical and biological engineering. In addition, Gerecht and <strong>Hai-Quan Mao</strong>, a professor of materials science and engineering, have been appointed associate directors of the Institute for NanoBioTechnology.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p><strong>Adnan Hyder</strong>, a professor of international health in the <strong>Bloomberg School</strong>, director of the school's Health Systems Program and International Injury Research Unit, and associate director of Global Programs in the Berman Institute of Bioethics, is one of 23 commissioners serving on the NCDI Poverty Commission, newly established by <em>The Lancet</em>. The commission seeks "to broaden the current noncommunicable disease agenda in the interest of equity." The commissioners' summary report will be submitted for peer review and publication in <em>The Lancet</em> in 2017.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p><strong>Andrew "Andy" Frank</strong>, special adviser to President Ron Daniels on economic development, was sworn in as a member of the Baltimore City Board of School Commissioners in November 2015.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p><strong>David Bishai</strong>, a <strong>Bloomberg School</strong> professor in Population, Family and Reproductive Health, with joint appointments in Health, Behavior and Society and in International Health, is president-elect of the International Health Economics Association.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p><strong>Charles Wiener</strong>, a professor in the <strong>School of Medicine</strong>, has taken on a new role as medical director and vice president of academic affairs for Johns Hopkins Medicine International. He will retain his appointments as professor of medicine and physiology and as director of undergraduate studies for the Krieger School's major in medicine, science, and the humanities.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Note <p>I once convinced Sidney Mintz to cook Thanksgiving dinner for me. In August.</p> <p>I was writing about how, as an anthropologist, he thought about food and national cuisines, in particular his assertion that there was no such thing as American cuisine. Because the story was bound for the November 1998 issue of <em>Johns Hopkins Magazine</em>, I thought anchoring it on a big Thanksgiving dinner was a swell idea. All I had to do was persuade Sid to cook it in late summer. He was game, a thoroughly good sport, and about eight of us had a wonderful meal.</p> <p>I have interviewed hundreds and hundreds of scholars, scientists, artists, thinkers, and clinicians at Johns Hopkins University, and to me Sid Mintz, who recently died at 93 (see pg. 65), was exemplary of what I find most admirable about this place. He was smart, dedicated, incisive, creative, a rigorous and meticulous scholar and a thinker unafraid to propound a striking or contrarian idea.</p> <p>When I think of other Hopkins faculty who stand out to me as embodying the same qualities (perhaps minus the skill in the kitchen), I think of Kay Redfield Jamison, Denis Wirtz, Ellen Silbergeld, Leon Fleisher, Avi Rubin, Peter Agre, Kathryn Edin, and many others. People devoted to pursuing knowledge and the truth that emerges from that knowledge. Endlessly energetic and enterprising in following their curiosity wherever it leads. Gifted explainers and teachers who see value in conveying what they've learned and what they know to the general public so that all may benefit.</p> <p>I thrive on talking with these people and being part of the same big, ambitious endeavor. And I thrive especially on bringing their stories to you. Thanks to them for being so interesting; thanks to you for reading.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Message <p>Two weeks before Winter Storm Jonas snarled our streets, I drove around Baltimore's harbor to the old Tindeco factory building.</p> <p>Once a thriving manufacturing center, whose workers could produce millions of tin containers a day, this former factory is now home to Personal Genome Diagnostics, or PGDx. I was there to meet with two Johns Hopkins doctors, Victor Velculescu and Luis Diaz, who launched the business based on their proprietary, noninvasive technologies—including blood test–based biopsies—that can detect and diagnose cancerous tumors at very early stages. These physician-scientists are, simply put, helping to revolutionize cancer medicine.</p> <p>They are also part of a growing group of Johns Hopkins–related startups that have decided to stay—in Baltimore.</p> <p>For a city such as ours, decisions like this reinforce our growing belief that Baltimore can become a truly robust innovation ecosystem.</p> <p>Johns Hopkins is doing its part to help nurture that ecosystem. In the past several years, we have strengthened our efforts to support commercialization, innovation, and entrepreneurship through Johns Hopkins Technology Ventures. Under the JHTV umbrella, we have expanded our on-campus business accelerators designed to support companies that have emerged from Johns Hopkins and from across our city, and we will continue that expansion next fall when our East Baltimore innovation hub takes up permanent residence in 25,000 square feet of new space. We have also increased the number and quality of our business services to better support Johns Hopkins entrepreneur-scientists, such as Victor and Luis, who seek to commercialize their ideas. We have created a mentors-in-residence program, supported seed funding for translational work, partnered with regional academic institutions and the National Science Foundation to offer an intensive startup training program called DC I-Corps, and nurtured the aspirations of our students, whose entrepreneurial acumen is giving rise to wearable diagnostic devices and new, mass-produced protective gear for workers fighting Ebola.</p> <p>As I sat with PGDx's founders, I listened to their hopes and plans for the future. I was heartened by their determination to take the company from 63 employees to more than double that number in two years. I was delighted by their desire to create a recruitment pipeline to bring more Johns Hopkins undergraduate and graduate students into the halls of PGDx and keep great talent in Baltimore.</p> <p>This is the story of just one company, yet it speaks volumes about the role our institution—and its people—can play in the life of our city, as an igniter of ideas, a place where individual promise is nurtured, an incubator of economic opportunity, and an institution that can unlock the many possibilities that lie ahead for the city we call home.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Contributors <p><strong>Marianne Amoss</strong> ("Inventing Inventology,") is a Baltimore-based writer and student in the Johns Hopkins Science Writing program. She manages communications for the Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health at the Bloomberg School of Public Health.</p> <p><strong>Julie Bidwell</strong> ("The Count," photography,) is a commercial and editorial lifestyle photographer living in Connecticut. She focuses on food, people, interiors, and travel.</p> <p><strong>Josh Cochran</strong> ("Wave Hunters," illustration,) specializes in bright, dense, conceptual drawings. His work spans a variety of media, including large-scale mural installations and children's books. He lives in Brooklyn, New York.</p> <p><strong>Tom Jay</strong> ("When the Spices Dance," illustration,) works for editorial and book illustration clients, including <em>The New York Times</em>, <em>Lonely Planet</em>, <em>Bloomsbury</em>, <em>The Independent</em>, and <em>Creative Review</em>. He lives in Hackney, London.</p> <p><strong>Christianna McCausland</strong> ("The Gluten-Free Grocer,") is an award-winning feature writer based in Baltimore. Past clients include <em>Baltimore</em> magazine, <em>The Washington Post</em>, and <em>The Christian Science Monitor</em>.</p> <p><strong>Julie Scharper</strong> ("Wave Hunters,"), A&S '01, was happy to return to campus to learn about the CLASS telescope. After nine years of reporting for <em>The Baltimore Sun</em>, Scharper recently launched a freelance career. She lives north of the city with her husband and two small children. </p> <h3>On the cover</h3> <p><strong>Patric Sandri</strong>'s illustrations aim to surprise viewers with uncommon solutions. This issue's cover art, which accompanies "Inventing Inventology", is his take on the brain as a physical space where people interact to research and invent. Sandri, who lives in Zurich, has had his work appear in <em>Advertising Age</em>, <em>National Journal</em>, <em>Bloomberg Businessweek</em>, and others. [Read the cover story.]</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Dialogue <h3>A Letdown</h3> <p>I was excited to see your article on Dr. Edin's groundbreaking book <em>$2.00 a Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America</em> ["The End of the End of the Line," Winter 2015]. I greatly admire her work and Johns Hopkins is rightly proud of her for her scholarship and compassion for the most vulnerable among us. I see many such people in my work at Johns Hopkins as well and am gratified that their struggles are finally being recognized by the mainstream media. You can imagine, then, my horror at your use of the word "junkies" in that article. That derogatory term for a person who uses drugs has no more place in the discussion than terms like "retard" or "fat pig," which I am certain Johns Hopkins Magazine would never use. Indeed, the juxtaposition of that word in an article about how desperate and complex are the lives of the extreme poor borders on absurd and makes me question whether you truly understood the points Dr. Edin was trying to make.</p> <p><strong>Jessica M. Peirce,</strong></p> <p>Assistant Director,</p> <p>Addiction Treatment Services,</p> <p>Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center</p> <p>Baltimore</p> <h3>Procreation Policy</h3> <p>As a Hopkins-educated liberal, yet realist, I am tired of reading stories of people trapped in poverty, poor housing, unemployment, less than fully legal hustling, and so on. Let me clarify. I'm tired of people with lots of kids asking for sympathy, handouts, and programs that reward them for having lots of kids. Victims of rape aside, every man and woman in this country has access to cheap or free birth control. Every couple has the option of putting a child up for adoption. Every problem in both "The End of the End of the Line" and "Knocking the Neoliberal Hustle," both in the Winter 2015 issue, is exacerbated by having more than one (in some cases any) child to care for. I'm tired of reading sob stories about trying to feed a family of six kids, all under 18, on a single mom's minimum wage income. I think Johns Hopkins does little to address this very real problem since it is such a liberal institution that to even hint at asking the poor/working poor/rich to stop having babies would cause a riot situation. All problems on Earth can be decreased, if not eliminated, by a zero population growth personal policy. I don't care what China did or will do as a matter of national procreation policy; I'm asking Baltimore to stop making so many babies. People who have exceeded their ability to provide proper care and feeding of their offspring are numerous in Maryland, but it has to start somewhere, sometime. The planet, taxpayers, liberals, conservatives, atheists, and even Catholics will be better off in the long run.</p> <p><strong>William Nichols, A&S '96 (MS)</strong></p> <p>Ellicott City, Maryland </p> <h3>The Bigger Question</h3> <p>In the article "The End of the End of the Line" [Winter 2015], Dale Keiger does not conclude much more than, "There seems to be little public support for a retooling of the welfare system sufficient to help the extreme poor." The article summarizes "itinerant scholar of the poor" Kathryn Edin's generous and important work that shows 4 million Americans live in poverty on less than $2 per day. There must be more to conclude and learn from Ms. Edin's work. It would be more valuable to reach for a conclusion about why such poverty flourishes in America, how it comes to be, and what might be done about it. Like any social or political issue, citizens and politicians must have the real will to solve the problem. Apparently, they do not have such a will, and that begs a bigger question: Why not? It's because most people and government officials cannot muster enough compassion and humanity to put the welfare of their neighbors on a footing equal to their own. People must learn to—or evolve to the point where they can—overcome their own bitterness, selfishness, and ambition. America would be a more stable, compassionate country if its citizens gave of themselves to continually help their countrymen all the time.</p> <p><strong>Daniel Hirschhorn, A&S '78, Bus '80 (MBA)</strong></p> <p>Damascus, Maryland</p> <h3>Imaginary Enemy</h3> <p>I don't know what to make of Ron Daniels' mea culpa [Message, Winter 2015]. Does he honestly believe that there is institutional racism at Hopkins? I submit that institutionalized racism is an imaginary enemy, that, as Bret Stephens wrote in The Wall Street Journal, "somehow we are supposed to believe that the same college administrators who have made a religion of diversity are really the second coming of Strom Thurmond." To think that spending $20 million on courses in Africana studies or Swahili will make a difference is laughable. As long as there are racial differences among men, there will be individual acts of racial discrimination—which should be condemned. But to the extent that these craven administrators kowtow to the manu­factured indignation of unruly protesters, they demonstrate not the "courage and vision" that Daniels cites, but cowardice and spinelessness. When Halloween costumes (pirates with dreadlocks, white women with sombreros and mustaches) provoke suspensions and firings because of imagined racial slights, political correctness has truly gone awry.</p> <p><strong>Thomas F. McDonough, A&S '69</strong></p> <p>Towson, Maryland</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Do drug treatment centers bring more crime to a neighborhood? <p>Denizens of urban neighborhoods often resist certain additions to the community: commercial enterprises like bars or dance clubs, group homes, subsidized housing developments, halfway houses. The phenomenon is common enough to merit an acronym—NIMBY, for "not in my backyard."</p> <p>Situating a drug treatment center—a DTC, in public health parlance—in a neighborhood is a particularly unpopular move, even in communities where the need is most acute. People with drug problems need a place to obtain methadone and other treatment services. But neighborhoods fear that any facility that attracts addicts will also attract crime to places already dealing with too much urban violence. Debra Furr-Holden, A&S '96, SPH '99 (PhD), an associate professor in the Bloomberg School of Public Health's Department of Mental Health, led a recent study, published in the <em>Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs</em>, that analyzed Baltimore crime statistics in the vicinities of various establishments, including DTCs. The data reveal that community members should be more worried about liquor stores than drug treatment centers.</p> <h4>Context</h4> <p>Urban residents are right to be concerned about safety, property values, noise and traffic, and unpleasant behavior on the street, all of which reduce the quality of their lives. Everyone worries about those things, wherever they live. Research has shown that facilities designed to serve special populations such as people with mental health issues, insecure housing, or drug abuse problems often are stigmatized and disdained. Frequently the main concern is crime—for example, that a DTC will bring with it an increase in violent crimes such as homicides and violent assaults.</p> <h4>Data</h4> <p>Furr-Holden and her co-authors obtained data on violent crimes—defined as homicide, manslaughter, rape, aggravated assault, and robbery—from the Baltimore City Police Department's Uniform Crime Report and plotted more than 9,000 of those crimes on a map. Then, for each of 53 public DTCs located in the city, they tabulated violent crimes committed within 1,400 feet of each center. They did the same for liquor stores, convenience stores, and corner stores. (The key distinction between the last two was ownership: convenience stores are chain operations, while corner stores are independent mom-and-pop shops.) When they calculated the mean number of violent crimes for each type of establishment, they found that roughly the same number of crimes were committed near convenience stores as near DTCs. But the data reveal that 38 percent more violent crimes were committed near liquor stores, and 31 percent more near corner stores.</p> <h4>Upshot</h4> <p>The standard public anxiety about a DTC attracting crime to the neighborhood is not borne out by the data. Crimes tend to cluster around any sort of public establishment because stores, clinics, etc., draw people to the streets and crime happens where there are concentrations of people. But according to these research results, you are significantly more likely to encounter violent crime near a liquor or corner store than a DTC, and neighborhoods often recruit the former (especially corner food stores) while trying to discourage the latter.</p> <h4>Conclusion</h4> <p>"Drug treatment centers are a public health need; they are as necessary as urgent care centers and emergency departments," says Furr-Holden. "Our research shows that DTCs do not impact communities any more than other commercial businesses. Moving forward, communities should work with researchers, policymakers, and DTCs to have an honest dialogue regarding placement of this needed resource."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Art imitates science <p>Arrange a sheet of carbon rings one way and you get a diamond. Rearrange those same rings ever so slightly and you get something completely different: graphite, perhaps. Leave it to a Johns Hopkins alum to apply materials science to art. Rose Thun, Engr '90, started using 3-D printers to produce engine parts while working in aerospace, but she quickly found that the machines could be used as a creative outlet, to design complex, conceptual artwork often centered around science. Her 5 Allotrope Bowl (accompanying image) incorporates five types of carbon microstructures.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Energy drinks linked to unhealthy behavior among adolescents <p>No bull—energy drinks are big business. Fueled largely by millions of millennials craving a quick boost, the industry's growth has been as meteoric as some of the beverages' brand names suggest: Monster, Rockstar, Relentless. Sales of energy drinks surged 60 percent in the United States from 2008 to 2012, with no sign of slowing. By next year, annual sales will exceed $21 billion in the United States alone, according to a report from food and beverage industry analyst Packaged Facts.</p> <p>But there is growing concern over potential harm from knocking back too many Red Bulls or Monsters.</p> <p>Like their soda brethren, energy drinks can be sugar and calorie bombs, with up to 53 grams of the sweet stuff and 260 calories per can. Unlike coffee or soda, many energy drinks contain multiple stimulants and "vitality-enhancing" ingredients such as taurine, guarana, ginseng, and B vitamins; how these ingredients interact is largely unknown.</p> <p>And now there is research that correlates consumption of energy drinks with unhealthy behavior among adolescents and college students, including smoking, alcohol abuse, drug use, fighting, and risky sexual activity.</p> <p>In a study published in the <em>Journal of Caffeine Research</em>, Johns Hopkins scientists examined the relationship between energy drinks and risk. The study included a nationwide sample of 874 young adults, ages 18 to 28, who completed an online survey. The findings were stark. Respondents who consumed one or more energy drinks per week were twice as likely to smoke cigarettes and more than twice as likely to abuse prescription and illicit drugs such as Ritalin and cocaine. Energy drinkers were also more likely to smoke marijuana (56 percent claimed they had), use prescription opioids such as Vicodin (27 percent), drive without wearing a seatbelt (53 percent), drive while intoxicated (30 percent), and participate in a hazardous sport like snowboarding, bungee jumping, or parkour, a form of physical training run over a risky obstacle course (26 percent). Reckless sexual behavior reported by weekly energy drink consumers also was high. Sixty-three percent said they had engaged in unprotected sex with someone other than their spouses, and 69 percent said they'd had sex while drunk or high.</p> <p>There's more. Maggie Sweeney, a postdoctoral research fellow in the School of Medicine's Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and co-author of the study, says that respondents who reported using energy drinks more than once per week were also associated with a sort of impulsive decision making called delay discounting—for example, taking $20 now rather than waiting a week to receive $60.</p> <p>Sweeney cautions that the nature of the relationship between energy drinks and risky behavior, besides the correlation noted in the study, remains unclear. The researchers are not making any causal link between downing a couple of Rockstars and subsequently having unsafe sex or driving while drunk. Sweeney says a tired person who might have left a party to go home and to bed after a couple of drinks might instead recharge with an energy drink, then stay and drink more. Other studies have concluded that high-caffeine beverages can affect drinkers' perception of how impaired they are; the jolt from an energy drink might mask the effects of too much alcohol, leading someone to think they're OK to drive.</p> <p>The bottom line, Sweeney says, is that energy drinks merit further study because of their growing popularity, especially among young people who otherwise might not consume such high doses of caffeine. The research authors note that evidence is mounting for energy drink consumption as a warning sign among teenagers and young adults, and they recommend further research as to "whether it has potential to aid parents, educators, and clinicians in identifying individuals who are most likely to engage in risk behavior."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Maria Trent's long crusade to help teens with pelvic inflammatory disease <p>You hear Maria Trent's resolve as soon as she starts to explain her work. Her sentences come rapid fire, a cascade of statistics and clinical terms leavened by compassion. An associate professor at the School of Medicine, Trent has spent the last 15 years focused on the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease, a common infection of female reproductive organs caused by sexually transmitted diseases. Now in the fourth year of a major study that wraps up in 2017, Trent says she's found new ways to reach the disease's most vulnerable victims: urban African-American teenage girls.</p> <p>Trent first directed her attention to PID in 2001 after a 15-year-old girl, doubled over with abdominal pain, showed up at her practice in an East Baltimore clinic. The girl had been diagnosed with PID a few weeks earlier during a late-night visit to the emergency room. The ER staff sent her home that night with a prescription for antibiotics, but the girl hadn't really understood why she should take all the pills or when to seek more care. Now she was back, in great pain. "At no point in my career was I accustomed to seeing adolescents with PID fend for themselves in an outpatient setting," Trent says. "Expecting this girl to manage the disorder on her own, without support and advice, was unacceptable to me. In my opinion, the system had failed her." Trent was moved to begin a systematic study of the problem, and the work morphed into her current study, a five-year, $2.5 million randomized controlled clinical trial funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research.</p> <p>Trent has designed interventions that blend technology—cellphones and Web portals—with home visits by community health nurses. Her team has worked with more than 200 mostly low-income minority women and girls in the Baltimore area, ages 13 to 25 and diagnosed with PID.</p> <p>"The CDC now recommends that young women with PID have a follow-up visit with a provider to reassess within 72 hours of their diagnosis, but these patients have a poor record of coming back for those visits," Trent says. So patients in her intervention group receive a home visit from a nurse and cellphone text reminders about their medication, appointments, and self-care. Patients in the control group did not receive the nursing care or text messages and were simply asked to book a follow-up visit. Trent reports a retention rate of more than 90 percent among her teen patients through the duration of the study so far, despite the complexities in these young women's lives, complexities that can include everything from unstable housing and incarceration to disconnected phones and suspensions from school.</p> <p>Using community health nurses for adolescent STD follow-up care is new. About half of the patients in the study have already been pregnant and half have had STDs. "A lot has to go on in that follow-up visit: STD and HIV risk reduction, family planning counseling, and more," Trent says. "That nurse visit is a powerful thing." The home visits cost less than a trip to a physician or the emergency room and may prove more effective in reducing short-term rates of repeat infections, she notes. "Anything we can do for adolescents as they start making their own decisions is important. Young people of all cultures say that being a parent is very important to their future. My work is designed to use innovation in science, technology, and clinical care to protect their future fertility while they navigate the sexual health risks associated with emerging personal autonomy."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Intersession class lets students taste foods of the African diaspora <p>Adante Hart has half of his eight-person class doing kitchen prep work while the other half observes. One young man seeds jalapeños. One young woman dices garlic and red onion; another chops potatoes.</p> <p>They've gathered on a cold January evening in the Charles Commons kitchen on the Homewood campus for Hart's Intersession class, Meals From the Motherland: Tasting Foods of the African Diaspora. They're making five dishes: four from Ethiopia including shiro wat, a stew made from chickpea flour; tikil gomen, a flavorful mix of carrots and cabbage; timatim, a salad of tomatoes and peppers; mesir wot, a red lentil stew; and a Kenyan dish called sukuma wiki. "Sukuma wiki means 'stretch the week' in Swahili," Hart tells the class, adding that its use of a hearty green makes it a year-round staple in Africa. He's using kale—if an ingredient is exotic, he uses a more available option—braising it with white onion, tomato, and seasonings. He drops cumin, coriander, and turmeric into a heated pot, stirs, and smiles. "This is my favorite part," he says, "when the spices dance in the oil and you start to smell them."</p> <p>By day, Hart, A&S '11, works as a research assistant in the data coordinating center of the Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Clinical Trials and Evidence Synthesis. Since fall 2013, at nights and on weekends he has taught cooking classes at churches and assisted-living public housing projects as a volunteer instructor for Oldways, a nonprofit food and nutrition organization, and as part of ventures such as the Baltimore Faith and Food Project, a collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Office of Community Health that is part Bible study, part cooking lesson. He's trying to wed his interest in cooking and nutrition with improving African-American health outcomes.</p> <p>A 2014 study by Hopkins' Center for a Livable Future showed that people who cook at home consume fewer carbohydrates and less sugar and fat. "That's one reason why I like teaching these classes," Hart says, "to eliminate the barriers to understanding nutrition and to show how easy it is to make these meals." It's a lesson he had to learn himself. Hart was born and raised in Miami, the son of a single mother who worked for the postal service. As a latchkey kid he often found himself eating fast food and maintaining a horrible diet. In college, he started cooking for him­self, lost weight, and felt better. As a Johns Hopkins undergraduate, he got involved with Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls, a project run by the Bloomberg School's Joel Gittelsohn to determine whether a food intervention and education program could reduce risk factors for high blood pressure among primarily African-American churchgoers.</p> <p>The summer after his sophomore year, Hart spent weekends at a Seventh-day Adventist Church in north Baltimore doing food demonstrations and passing out food-related information. For eight months during his junior year he interviewed people about their food habits and understanding of nutrition. That led to a paper, "Process Evaluation of Healthy Bodies, Healthy Souls: A Church-Based Health Intervention Program in Baltimore City," published in <em>Health Education Research</em> in 2013; Hart was a co-author. He was struck by how little people knew about reading a nutrition label and what they should be eating. African-Americans "have the highest rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, and cancer, and I see this lack of knowledge here," he says. "I decided I wanted to do something, I wasn't sure what, to address those disparities and food-related illnesses."</p> <p>After graduating, he stayed in Baltimore and got in touch with Boston-based Oldways, which wanted to expand its programming in Baltimore. Would he like to be one of its volunteer cooking instructors?</p> <p>Combining African foods with nutritional education was a way to spotlight how eating habits can impact African-American health outcomes. "Growing up as a black kid in Miami, single parent, don't know who my father is, I don't know what kinds of ties I have to the motherland," he says. "Teaching these classes has opened my eyes to the foods of Africa and how they relate to the things many of us might've had growing up."</p> <p>Hart taught his first six-week African cooking class in the fall of 2013 at a church. He's taught some version of it ever since. He does library research looking up recipe variations and the history behind certain dishes. He visits and talks to African restaurants and chefs in Baltimore. In the fall, he taught classes through the Faith and Food program for congregants from two old, large black churches in Baltimore. He's got two more of those scheduled for spring. This winter Intersession class is a chance to teach in a more casual, secular setting. Over two hours, the students help prepare the dishes as he talks about the nutritional benefits of whole grains versus refined grains, the flavors and uses of different greens, and places in Baltimore to find the Ethiopian spice mix berbere. The evening ends with Hart serving the dishes atop round platters lined with injera and everybody sitting down for dinner.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 What tiny mollusks in Antarctica can tell us about ocean acidification <p>In the middle of the night, bundled up to protect against below-freezing temperatures, Johns Hopkins researcher Rajat Mittal dropped a large net into the dark ocean near the Antarctic Circle. He and his research team were collecting tiny mollusks called sea butterflies, which move closer to the water's surface at night. Studying the pteropods, they believed, could tell them something about the effects of ocean acidification.</p> <p>Ranging in size from 1 to 3 milli­meters, sea butterflies live in the Earth's polar oceans. Using clear, winglike appendages, they travel up and down columns of water in wobbly trajectories, finding mates and consuming microscopic algae as they go. The changing chemistry of the oceans has begun to cause them problems, however. The sea absorbs a quarter of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere as we burn fossil fuels, a process that has caused the water's acidity to rise rapidly—by 30 percent over the last two centuries (the fastest known change in the last 50 million years). As a result, sea butterflies' calcium carbonate shells have begun to erode, altering their centers of mass and affecting their ability to swim. "They've been called the sentinels of ocean acidification," Mittal says. "These animals are absolutely the canaries in the coal mine."</p> <p>A professor of mechanical engineering at the Whiting School, Mittal is studying the mechanics of the animal's swimming motion because its ability to swim, which has a huge impact on its survival, is directly affected by the acidification of the ocean. Once Mittal and his team, which includes oceanographer Jeannette Yen from the Georgia Institute of Technology, collected enough sea butterflies from the Antarctic waters, they took them to a lab at Palmer Station, a U.S.-run research station on Anvers Island in Antarctica's Palmer Archipelago. There, the scientists shot from multiple angles high-speed, high-resolution videos of the creatures swimming. Then, using Maya—three-dimensional animation software that has been used to create animated films such as <em>Shrek</em>—Mittal produced an animated model that will help build a baseline understanding of the sea butterfly's locomotion. He will later apply simulation software to the model to show how the snails will likely move as the pH of the ocean continues to decrease.</p> <p>Ultimately, Mittal hopes to learn more about the sea butterfly's ability to survive in the acidifying water. He notes that the destruction of the sea butterfly has the potential to shake up the entire marine food web. As a form of plankton, the organisms constitute a primary food source for a number of larger creatures, including seabirds, marine mammals, salmon, and krill. "They cannot evolve fast enough to survive the loss of the shell," Mittal says. And since sea butterfly shells sink to the seafloor and release carbonate after the organisms die, their disappearance would further alter the chemical cycle of the ocean. Ocean acidification has not been discussed nearly as much as climate change, but, says Mittal, "its impact is probably going to be as much, if not more, than the heating of the atmosphere. The more visibility that can be brought to this, the better."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 New book by Krieger School professor Shane Butler examines the relationship of text to voice <p>Sir Isaac Pitman used the term "phonography" for the system of shorthand he invented in the 1830s. The word embodied what the Pitman system was meant to enable: "writing the voice." During a recent Skype video conversation with the classicist Shane Butler, I hold up a copy of The Manual of Phonography, a book by Isaac's brother, Benjamin, and a bemused Butler replies, "I can best you on that. I've actually been to the house in Bath, England, where Isaac Pitman lived." Then Butler apologizes. "I have a cold, which has ruined my voice, which is ironic."</p> <p>Ironic because our conversation is all about voice. Butler, a professor in the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences' Department of Classics, has a deep interest in the voices he hears when he reads classical texts, and the relationship of text to voice. He recently published <em>The Ancient Phonograph</em> (Zone Books, 2015), which he describes in its introduction as "a new book about a very old subject: the role of sound in Greek and Latin literature." Classical texts were "phonographic literature" and "a noisy business," he writes, and he ponders the purpose of whoever first committed Homer to the page. Was it to record the details of Homer's stories, the sense of <em>The Iliad</em> and <em>The Odyssey</em>, or the music of the poet's meter and alliteration, the sound of the epics?</p> <p>Butler reads Philostratus' <em>Lives of the Sophists</em> and it becomes "a jukebox or, better still, a radio program." He notes the adjectives used to describe Nero's singing voice and playfully offers that the emperor was a "dusky-voiced torch-song singer." He says, "We think of antiquity as being dead and in museums, but because of its lack of definition and a lack of finality, it's also very alive, just as we are. You can't get to the bottom of it. You can't fully reconstruct it." But, he adds, that's a large part of what makes it real to us.</p> <p>Part of his fascination is with the capture of a lived experience so it can be experienced again, whether through a classical text or vinyl record. "The voice moves you in moments that seem to be radically specific," he says. "The vocal performance is the thing that says, 'I'm unrepeatable. I'm here, you're here—isn't this amazing?' And yet we do capture that, and we listen to it over and over and over again. It's beautiful and crazy and fascinating to me."</p> <p>Butler frequently invokes modern sound technology. The introduction of <em>The Ancient Phonograph</em> is titled "Liner Notes," and the five chapters are "Track 1," "Track 2," etc. In "Liner Notes" he writes, "Time now to start taking some (very) old records off the shelf. Our playlist will be an eclectic one, and I mostly have permitted myself simply to choose a few of my own personal favorites: top-forty hits from Cicero, Ovid, and the ancient tragedians, but also some rarer material from Sophistic declaimers, pseudo-Anacreon, and even the half-mad emperor Nero."</p> <p>As a graduate student at Columbia, Butler made a close friend who appears in <em>The Antique Phonograph</em> as "the record collector." When this friend died, Butler was bequeathed his vinyl collection as well as his diary of the performances he'd witnessed at the Metropolitan Opera. He has kept the LPs and the treasured memories of voices heard. "We're all used to loss as much as we are to memory," he muses. "Things that we can remember but not well enough, the people who are dead that we knew. So, we have this strange, modulated relationship between presence and absence. The voice is a great example of that. Our whole body resonates with it. It's radically present. It's not an idea; it's a thing. It's right in front of you, talking to you, resonating in your own body. And yet, it's gone, right? It's temporary. So, it's radically present and radically evanescent at the same time. That's really beautiful."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Alum's proposal would put an urban art park beneath the Jones Falls Expressway <p>Richard Best had to find Buddha. If he wanted to see the place his artist friend Stefan Ways said was a cool spot for street art—that umbrella term for any sort of public urban art, including stencils, spray-painted murals, and posters—he had to follow Ways' winding directions. He had to walk around the Fox Building on the Maryland Institute College of Art's campus in midtown Baltimore to the Buddha sculpture behind it. Turn right. Duck under the surveillance camera. Hop down a wall to the railroad tracks. Cross them, pass through a tunnel. Turn right again.</p> <p>An occasional wheatpaste poster artist himself, Best was impressed once he got there. "I was really blown away that there was this space that a community of artists had found value in that no one else cares about," he says. Street artists had covered the concrete pillars and walls that support the Jones Falls Expressway passing overhead with spray-painted murals. Aside from the art, the space was a patch of dirt, grass, a few trees, and urban debris, but Best, Bus '14 (MBA), saw something more. "It was completely abandoned, but it could be amazing. It should be a public space, a new kind of park—an art park."</p> <p>At the time, Best was in his first semester of the inaugural Design Leadership dual-degree program administered by the Carey Business School and MICA. A Georgia native who moved to Baltimore as a defense contractor, Best had allowed his street art to idle in the background of his professional life. The Carey/MICA MBA/MA offered a balance of business and art that Best wanted to explore as an entrepreneur. He saw potential in this 3.5-acre parcel of land located under the highway and made the park his MBA capstone project. While he was in school he created Section1, a nonprofit organization whose mission is to turn underutilized spaces into creative cultural hubs.</p> <p>This particular park, which Best envisions as a space for street art, skateboarding, and live music (three of his abiding interests) is Section 1's debut project. Best had been attracted to Design Leadership's focus on human-centered design, where a project is shaped by input from the people who will eventually use it. "I think that's the future of business, looking holistically at what's going to create value for the groups that use it," he says. "How a muralist on a lift and a skateboarder interact is going to be interesting, as are how skateboardable surfaces and a music stage go together. We want to go to these creative com­munities and say, 'Let's develop a park that's going to be designed to all of our best interests.'"</p> <p>Best's Jones Falls underpass project is similar in spirit to recent celebrated renewal efforts such as the High Line, a 1.45-mile elevated train track in lower Manhattan converted into an urban park; Wynwood Walls, the Miami ware­house district that was transformed into a street art showcase; and 5 Pointz, the now-demolished Queens building that became a world-renowned mural mecca. Best talked up such projects throughout 2014 as he contacted city offices and the organizations whose properties adjoin the park's site—Amtrak, the Maryland Transit Administration, MICA, and the University of Baltimore. All were excited about the park's prospects. Best assembled a Section1 advisory team, which included local developers, to help him out. Now all he had to do was find out who owned the land, secure a long-term lease, and start more directed fundraising. (Currently, Section1 has raised money through a few fundraising events, private donations and grants, and selling art bonds, where street artists donated work to be sold and the proceeds go to the organization.)</p> <p>City records initially indicated that the MTA owned the land, as it abuts the light rail tracks. But the MTA didn't have paperwork documenting its ownership of the entire plot. Section1 hired a survey team to figure out that the land is owned by four different organizations: the city of Baltimore, the University of Baltimore, the MTA, and Northern Central Railway, a company that operated from 1858 to 1976. And finding out who the resident agent is for a company that folded four decades back has proved to be a bit complicated. "That's been the big challenge in obtaining the space," Best says, noting that this entire process took about a year and that they're still in talks about obtaining the land.</p> <p>"Cities have walking parks and bike parks, but they don't have art parks—so where do street artists go?" Best says. "There is nowhere. So when an artist wants to paint something, what do they do? They go paint a train, they go [paint] a building. We want to make art parks for them."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Pagan Kennedy makes the case for a new field of study: human inventiveness <p>In the 1990s, writer Pagan Kennedy began hanging out at Building 20 on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, accompanying her boyfriend at the time who was an artificial intelligence programmer and graduate student at MIT. Building 20 was a mostly wooden structure built in 1943 to temporarily house researchers working on radar for the U.S. military during the Second World War. After the war, the radar researchers departed, but MIT left the building in place and filled it with professors, researchers, and students from a hodgepodge of disciplines: meteorology, physics, education, linguistics, and more. The structure was dingy, contained asbestos, and was never meant to stand for 55 years. But the layout of its three floors encouraged mingling, and the mingling of so many disparate disciplines resulted in Building 20 becoming a remarkable incubator of innovation. Born there were some of the most important advances of modern times, from the atomic clock to modern linguistics.</p> <p>Kennedy, A&S '88 (MA), was enchanted by what she found. "There was a spirit there that I connected with," she says. "People were very focused on their passions and not very interested in proving that they were important. That spirit of tinkering and inspiration and joy in making things was so addictive that I really, without intellectualizing it, wanted to learn more and meet more people who were in that zone."</p> <p>Partly as a result of this experience, Kennedy, who had studied fiction at Johns Hopkins, turned toward science writing. That brought her into contact with more inventors who worked in what she now thought of as the Building 20 spirit. In 2012, studying invention became a part-time job when <em>The New York Times Magazine</em> tapped her to write the Who Made That? column. The column told the origin stories of inventions often taken for granted—the waterbed, the Super Soaker, the trampoline, the eraser at the end of a pencil, sliced bread. Her first piece was about the use of fingerprints as criminal evidence; her last, 18 months later, was about the smoke alarm.</p> <p>"I kept being surprised by who did make that," says Kennedy. She took up the column expecting to meet a lot of professional product designers in corporate research and development departments. Instead she met pilots, surgeons, housewives, parents—inventors all. People like Dick Belanger. A first-time father, Belanger hadn't minded dirty diapers, but he did mind the frequent spills caused by his toddler son. He bought a cup with a snap-on lid that promised to prevent leaks, but it was no match for his kid. So he decided to devise his own solution. Belanger was no stranger to invention; a mechanical engineer, he had filled a notebook that he'd dubbed "Dick's Book of Dumb Ideas." Calling on his expertise in nozzles—he had co-founded a hot glue gun company in the early 1980s—Belanger developed a prototype cup out of Tupperware parts and, as Kennedy wrote in the column, "added a built-in mouthpiece, experimenting with different kinds of valves until he found one that would let in some air as the child sipped. The air pressure trapped the liquid inside the cup so the nozzle didn't leak—even when you held the cup upside down." Belanger invested in a patent and the manufacture of several thousand cups. After a few successful years selling them to friends and acquaintances, he negotiated a licensing deal with Playtex, which still sells them. Thus was born the sippy cup.</p> <p>As she tracked down inventors for the <em>Times</em> column, men and women who came up with the Pantone color chip and the tube top and movie popcorn and the kickstand, Kennedy realized that she'd discovered a largely untapped resource. "Many of these inventors had not talked deeply with anybody about what they had done or how they had worked. There's been a lot of study of what venture capitalists are doing, what managers are doing, but I was surprised at how few people have bothered to actually study how these really big ideas came into being." As she delved into the research, Kennedy began to notice patterns in the invention stories and gaps in the research into how invention works. Her 11th book, <em>Inventology: How We Dream Things Up That Change the World</em> (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016), is her contribution to the field, focusing on successful inventions from the last 50 years.</p> <p>Kennedy's research convinced her that invention is an innate ability, that within anyone is the capability to think creatively and critically and make improvements in our environment by inventing something. She writes, "Our brains have evolved for problem-solving, planning for future disasters, and subsisting in environments like the Arctic, where by all rights we should not be able to dwell." She points out that our bodies have adapted to what our brains invent, morphing from the strong bones and joints of our early ancestors, who had no machines or animals to share their workload, to our comparatively fragile modern frames. "If you ever doubt your pedigree as an inventor, simply glance down at your knees—those vulnerable joints belong to a species that learned how to coax beasts of burden and machines into doing its work."</p> <p>She argues that it is essential to embrace and encourage this inborn personal inventiveness to solve the vexing issues of our time—hunger, antibiotic resistance, lack of access to clean water, and other mammoth problems. But she asserts that we are mostly ignorant about how invention works. Start with our ideas about inspiration. "We tend to believe that great ideas arrive like angels, in a flash of light," Kennedy writes, an assumption that can be traced to ancient Greeks who believed creativity was a gift from the Muses, passively received as instant insight. If we regard invention as a sort of mystical gift, we will find it hard to see ourselves as active participants in invention. Instead, she advocates looking to the successful inventors of the past as models for our own inventive activity. "It's crucial that we find out what people actually do as they invent things. What are they doing in their minds and with their hands?" Kennedy writes in the book's introduction. "We need a new field of study—call it Inventology—to answer that question."</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>Is there a formula for invention? Kennedy opens her book with this query, though it's a bit of a red herring. <em>Inventology</em> demonstrates through numerous examples that there is no unified theory of invention, no one way to go about it. Rather, there are several paths, and many successful inventors have traveled more than one. Kennedy sorts these paths into four that could be labeled problem-finding, serendipity, prophecy, and connecting.</p> <p>She begins with finding problems in need of inventive solutions, introducing the concept of "lead users," a term coined by economist Eric von Hippel to describe people whose "job or hobby exposes them to an unusual kind of repetition, tedium, or danger." In his 1986 paper "Lead Users: An Important Source of Novel Product Concepts," von Hippel defined them as people who have strong individual needs that in the future will be shared by a much bigger market; plus, lead users often work on their own to create something that meets their needs. So they become market forecasters of a sort, and then designers of prototypes—like Belanger. Although he was a professional engineer and a serial inventor, the sippy cup sprang out of Belanger's frustrations as a parent, so in that sense he is an example of a lead user. Pilot Robert Plath was another lead user.</p> <p>In the 1980s, tired of shouldering his luggage around airports, Plath tinkered in his home workshop until he'd developed the rolling suitcase that is omnipresent in airports today. At the time, Plath was among the few who traveled often enough to need easier-to-schlep luggage. "By virtue of his job, Plath was already living in the future, when flying would become a commonplace misery," Kennedy writes. In the 1990s, as a new generation of so-called "hyperfliers" began flying for work more often, "passengers were hunting for anything that would ease the pain of cramped flights—from Xanax to noise-canceling headphones. And that's when the rolling suitcase became essential equipment."</p> <p>Not every invention starts with a lead user who has a problem to be solved. Some begin as happy accidents. Kennedy examines chance discoveries that turn out to be solutions. "The microwave oven, Teflon, Velcro, the pacemaker, safety glass, X-rays—these all began when a lab worker bumped into some unusual phenomenon, became fascinated with it, and then figured out how to put it to use," Kennedy writes. "These inventors often begin with a hunch that they've hit on a major discovery, but they may not know why—until years later." For Duane Pearsall, serendipity was a major factor in his invention of the smoke detector. In 1963, he was at work on a device to reduce the dangerous static electricity found in photography labs and factories. One day someone lit a cigarette nearby, and Pearsall's "static neutralizer" reacted strongly to the smoke. He noticed, but he didn't see another use for it until a friend who worked at Honeywell urged him to turn his device into a smoke detector. At the time, thousands of Americans were dying in house fires annually, and most fire alarms were built to sense heat, not smoke; those that did detect smoke were unreliable and costly and not often used in homes. After years of development, Pearsall created the first inexpensive, battery-powered home smoke detector.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>In the 1970s, a man named Genrich Altshuller—whom Kennedy calls the "father of Inventology"—conducted workshops in the Soviet Union that encouraged inventive thinking through science fiction. Altshuller was a science fiction author himself, publishing novels as Genrich Altov. When he was growing up in the 1930s, Altshuller's young mind was alight with the alien worlds depicted in sci-fi novels. After reading about the pressure suit Captain Nemo donned to walk the ocean floor in Jules Verne's <em>Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea</em>, 14-year-old Altshuller designed and secured a patent for such a suit. In his workshops, he would ask his students first to dream up their own science fiction worlds. "This was a way of encouraging them to use narrative as a 'laboratory' for invention," Kennedy writes. Start by prophesying a world with futuristic devices, then invent the devices for the here and now. Kennedy notes a similar practice in the modern day: Intel Corporation's futurist Brian David Johnson "advocates for experimenting with written narratives, films, and cartoons to envision new possibilities—a technique he calls 'science-fiction prototyping.' We can 'use these fictions to get our minds around what that thing might one day be.'"</p> <p>Sometimes inventors engage in a sort of technological forecasting to devise products that they believe will be useful to the future. In the mid-1950s, Motorola engineer and product manager Martin Cooper witnessed how quickly doctors and nurses at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City took to new Motorola pagers that permitted unprecedented mobile connectivity. From this he conjectured that a mobile phone, small enough to be held in the hand like those pagers, would someday be just as indispensable. Despite being so bulky that it was nicknamed "the brick," the first mobile phone debuted by Motorola in 1973 captured the imagination of the public and the press. Cooper's hunch was right. The mobile phone is now ubiquitous and, to most users, essential.</p> <p>Kennedy writes about people like Cooper who invent from within their specialty, but she also focuses on outsiders, who from their different perspectives can see what specialists within disciplines sometimes do not and make unexpected connections. "Breakthroughs often happen when we allow unlikely collaborators and odd bedfellows to share our problems, or when we leap across boundaries," she writes.</p> <p>She cites examples from InnoCentive, a network of more than 300,000 "solvers" who vie for often substantial cash prizes by inventing solutions to problems that have stumped others. Winners of these challenges often hail from outside the problem's field and frequently draw on knowledge from other disciplines. In a 2010 paper about his study of 166 InnoCentive competitions, Karim Lakhani, an associate professor at Harvard Business School, and his colleagues shared that most had been won by outsiders. "Often, they picked up a technique or a concept in one place, and like bees carrying pollen, they'd fly to a new flower," Kennedy writes. "Scanning the list of InnoCentive's top solvers, you notice that a lot of them have acted as go-betweens, tying together knowledge from two or more disciplines. They're willing—even eager—to step outside their job titles." Take John Davis, who won the 2007 "Breaking Viscous Shear of Crude Oil" challenge posed on InnoCentive by the Oil Spill Recovery Institute in Alaska. From a summer job in construction, Davis knew about the pneumatic vibrator tools that prevent concrete from setting while being poured. He proposed that oil recovery barges use these same vibrating tools to keep their collected oil and water from freezing into a viscous mass, enabling the oil to remain a liquid that could more easily be transferred. For this outsider's proposal, Davis earned $20,000.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>How can this sort of cross-disciplinary, outside-the-silo thinking be encouraged? Kennedy advocates the creation of what she terms "zones of permission"—places like Building 20, or Bell Laboratories, a one-time research and development division of AT&T that, Kennedy writes, in the 1960s "was a model of free exchange, a hive of activity where engineers and mathematicians wandered through a playground of oscilloscopes, picture phones, laser beams, and blackboards, riffing on each other's thoughts like free-jazz musicians improving a tune." Smart, creative people mingled in the Eero Saarinen-designed atrium of the labs' central building in Holmdel, New Jersey, feeding off each other's ideas and energy. Out of this environment came a variety of stunning inventions, from the laser to satellite transmission to solar cells. (Johns Hopkins has created its own zones of permission, including the Applied Physics Laboratory's Central Spark innovation center.)</p> <p>Kennedy points out that these zones of permission are not always free of obstacles; companies sometimes do not pursue promising ideas, wary of pushing too far into unknown territory. For all of its embracing of innovation, Bell Labs wasn't a place where every great idea came to fruition: "Its inventors developed magnetic tape, cellular phones, fiber optics, fax machines, and a host of other key technologies. But management scuttled these projects for a variety of reasons—for instance, because bosses worried that the upstart technology might threaten profits from AT&T's landline phones. Or it may be that the managers simply did not recognize the potential of the gizmos that materialized in the labs."</p> <p>When she looks at the Internet, which she characterizes as "a vast public atrium where ideas ricochet among billions of people," Kennedy sees a massive zone of permission. Crowdfunding websites like Indiegogo and Kickstarter enable inventors to test the market for new products with comparatively little risk. Researchers can mine the online massive datasets commonly referred to as big data, searching for previously undetected patterns in medical research that could pave the way for new pharmaceuticals.</p> <p>And strangers all over the world can work together on projects. The Robohand company creates custom prosthetic devices using three-dimensional printers, which lay down layer after layer of plastic to create the device from a digital blueprint. The company enlists its online community in the devices' design and makes the blueprints available for free so that anyone with access to a 3-D printer can print and assemble a prosthetic hand at home for as little as $30—a far cry from the tens of thousands of dollars that such a device might otherwise cost. Jon Schull, a professor at Rochester Institute of Technology, has created e-NABLE, a Google Plus group that connects those who want a prosthetic hand or arm with volunteers who will print out the components on a 3-D printer. "There is now a real possibility of distributed, decentralized invention, manufacturing, and distribution," Schull says in Inventology. "The tools of production are now in the hands of the masses. There's a real chance that we're going from the Industrial Revolution to the Information Revolution to the Alternative Economy Revolution."</p> <p>Such exciting developments are not without unanticipated consequences, Kennedy observes. Now that design tools formerly accessible only to professional specialists are available to anyone, will those specialists find it harder to make a living? Kennedy has seen what happened in journalism. "The rise of blogging and citizen journalism has been amazing and has opened up the world and given us new kinds of social justice movements like Black Lives Matter," she says. "There's so much that is amazing about this revolution and has made ours a much better world. … [But] I've seen so many colleagues laid off, so many newspapers die. It's disheartening to watch journalists be paid less and less and wonder how is this going to be sustainable. That same bind may be coming to the world of engineering and product design."</p> <p>But in Kennedy's mind, there's little choice but to pursue individual inventiveness. "Apple and Google create terrific products that we love. But corporations are not designed to solve social and environmental problems." Although corporate inventors may solve some of the big problems, in general companies are driven not by the greater good but by financial gain, which can narrow their vision to what seems to promise future profits. Kennedy ends Inventology with a populist rallying cry first hinted at in the book's subtitle: We all have within us the capacity to participate in invention—whether by creating a sippy cup or contributing $50 to a GoFundMe project or discovering a kind of mold that saves lives. There is no one way to invent, no one perspective or background that is more fruitful or productive when it comes to invention; in our diversity lies our strength. The extraordinary human knee that Kennedy sees as emblematic of the inventor within all of us was not created by an R&D department staffed by specialists in biomechanics; rather, it evolved from the "input" of millions of users who invented solutions to problems as varied as those users' experience and viewpoints. "Each of us comes to the problems from a unique vantage point, and we're all fluent in our own language of solutions," she writes. "So if we can harness the enormous diversity of 7 billion minds, we stand a far greater chance of discovering the elegant solutions that lie somewhere out in the unknown."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Jeffrey Garten is a financier, academic, and author—and yes, he's married to the Barefoot Contessa <p>Andrew Grove was born a Jew in Hungary in 1936, which meant his was a youth lived in constant fear of separation or capture. Grove and his mother took on false identities and got through World War II hiding from the Nazis, shuttling from a Budapest apartment to a friend's house in the countryside. His father, who owned a dairy, was conscripted by the Nazi-allied, fascist Hungarian government to work in a labor camp on the Russian front. The family survived the war only to find themselves walled in by the brutal Soviet suppression of the 1956 Hungarian revolution. At the urging of an aunt, the 20-year-old Grove escaped to Austria in a harrowing journey by rail and foot, evading Russian patrols. He eventually crossed the Atlantic in a rusty U.S. troop carrier and moved in with cousins in New York City, where he enrolled in the City College of New York to study chemical engineering.</p> <p>As Jeffrey Garten, SAIS '72 (MA), '80 (PhD), sees it, Grove's upbringing played no small part in forging his personality and stratospheric aspirations. This one-time busboy turned semiconductor researcher became one of the most admired corporate managers of his day. As CEO of Intel, Grove helped transform the company into the world's largest manufacturer of microprocessors, Garten says, by skillfully motivating scientists to create computer chips not only exponentially faster and more powerful with each successive generation but smaller, cheaper, and produced on a scale large enough to supply the entire world. Grove defied the odds and through sheer resilience and single-mindedness—and no small amount of anything-goes competitiveness—helped change the world by effectively shrinking it.</p> <p>Grove is emblematic of the people profiled in <em>From Silk to Silicon: The Story of Globalization Through Ten Extraordinary Lives</em> (HarperCollins, 2016), Garten's sixth book on global economics. The Intel chief shares the stage with a collection of doers and unintentional global change agents that includes Genghis Khan; Prince Henry of Portugal, better known as Henry the Navigator; Cyrus Field, who co-founded the company that laid the first trans-Atlantic telegraph cable; magnate and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller; the French political economist Jean Monnet; British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher; and Chinese revolutionary and statesman Deng Xiaoping.How about that for a dinner party guest list?</p> <p>Garten, 69, spent eight years researching the book that he says was to be a more straightforward look at globalization until he found it more interesting to view the phenomenon through the life and times of these notable and sometimes deeply flawed individuals. He enjoys such deep digs into history and the global economy. In a sense, his life and a career that has spanned five decades and three realms—politics, Wall Street, and academia—have equipped him to be globalization's storyteller. Garten combines the inquisitiveness and patience of an obsessive scholar with an uncanny ability to dissect the backstory for keen observations related to the present. The author contends that globalization is not just a story to be told but one that must be told. We live in a world of terrorism, cybertheft, fear of pandemics, and financial instability, circumstances that make many feel vulnerable and lead them to wonder if we're all too interconnected. Garten argues that this thinking could mistakenly shift the leaders of the world's most powerful nations to look inward and narrowly focus on national, not global, interests.</p> <p>He knows a thing or two about world affairs. He's a former U.S. Army paratrooper who's held senior positions in the Nixon, Ford, Carter, and Clinton administrations. He first wrote reports on developing countries for then Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, and he later represented U.S. economic interests in emerging markets like India, Brazil, and China. As a vice president and later managing director at Lehman Brothers, he specialized in debt restructuring in Latin America and built up Lehman's investment banking business in Asia, which involved restructuring some of the world's largest shipping companies. To complete his career trifecta, Garten entered academia in the mid-1990s and managed to turn around the moribund business school at Yale, where he still teaches. He's also a businessman who co-founded an international consulting firm.</p> <p>I met Garten for dinner after he gave a keynote speech on the future of emerging markets at the World Affairs Councils of America's 2016 conference in Washington, D.C. We agreed to grab a bite at Kramerbooks & Afterwords, a bookstore and cafe in Dupont Circle just blocks from his former house and SAIS, where he studied four decades ago. Garten, dressed in a navy suit, blue shirt, and red striped tie, ordered salmon on a bed of greens. "I have to watch what I eat when I'm not at home. It's mostly salads for me," Garten leaned in to tell me. "I'm sure I have a big meal waiting for me. As you know, my wife likes to cook."</p> <p>Yeah, he's also <em>that</em> Garten—the graying, curly-haired, self-effacing husband of Ina Garten, the star of Food Network's <em>Barefoot Contessa</em> and the author whose cookbook sales are approaching 11 million copies. On television, he's the amiable, doting, oft-alluded-to hubby who returns from work or travel to the couple's East Hampton, New York, home, where he is greeted by a warm kiss and embrace and either a gourmet feast for two or a stylishly staged dinner party for friends. Known simply to his wife's legion of fans as Jeffrey—or more recently #drunkhubby, the hashtag bestowed upon him on Ina's Instagram account—he's the guy who likes his Friday night chicken dinner, can't tell a cabbage from a head of lettuce, and gets lost on the way to the store. Hey, nobody's perfect.</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>Asked where he considers home, Garten replies, "I'm not really from anywhere." He was an Army brat; the Gartens moved around a lot, and he mentions Germany, North Carolina, Kentucky, Kansas, England, Virginia, and Rhode Island as one-time homes. He describes his Army officer father as a huge presence growing up. A veteran of three wars, Melvin Garten had an extraordinary career, earning a Distinguished Service Cross, three Silver Stars, four Bronze Stars, five Purple Hearts, the Legion of Merit, two Joint Commendation Medals, and two Air Medals. During World War II, he served in the 11th Airborne Division and was part of a daring rescue mission on February 23, 1945, that liberated more than 2,000 U.S. and Allied civilians from the Japanese Los Banos prison camp on the Philippine island of Luzon. But Garten says his father, who died in 2015 at the age of 93, never boasted of his exploits or displayed his many honors. "Anyone who came into our house, if they didn't know he was in the military, they would have never known he was this decorated soldier," he says. Garten himself didn't know the full extent of his father's heroism for many years.</p> <p>He describes the family as close-knit—his parents were married for 70 years—and his own upbringing as happy but mostly solitary. He was guarded and quiet, not as gregarious as his older brother, Allan. He enrolled at Dartmouth in 1964, majored in government, and joined ROTC to help pay his way. His freshman year, he ran into Ina, who was visiting her older brother on campus. They immediately became friends and married several years later.</p> <p>Owing the Army four years for his education, he joined the 82nd Airborne Division and moved to Fayetteville, North Carolina, to train at Fort Bragg, where his father had been base commander just months prior. Garten says that when he was a Dartmouth student, the Vietnam War seemed pretty senseless to him, but he still would have volunteered, even without his ROTC commitment. "One thing I couldn't grapple with was being eligible to go and intentionally trying to stay out," he says. "This was 1968, just 20-plus years after World War II. At the time, it was a rite of passage for boys to fight in wars that the government asked you to be in. I wouldn't take the chance of years later feeling that I had done something disloyal." In the Army, he volunteered for every assignment and form of training he could, partly for self-preservation—he figured the more he knew, the better his chances if he ended up in combat. He worked his way up to captain and became aide-de-camp to the commanding general at the John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School, and he later studied at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center, where he became fluent in Thai.</p> <p>He shipped out to Southeast Asia in late 1970. Much of the time he was stationed in a remote town on the Thailand/Burma border as an adviser to a Thai combat unit. There was an insurgency in Thailand at the time, and Garten helped train Thai soldiers. He also escorted Thai units into Vietnam on occasion. He says he never fired his weapon but recalls one mission to a tiny village in Vietnam where he ended up seated in a hut with a Thai captain. "I remember him telling me that three Americans had been killed on this spot just yesterday. I asked him how did that happen, and he told me we were surrounded by Viet Cong. I then said, 'Just what was in your mind to bring me here?' He said, 'Don't worry about it. We paid [the Viet Cong] off. We're as safe as can be.'"</p> <p>The Thai border town had a library, and one of the few English-language books there was an old SAIS catalog that referred to the school's Rangoon-Hopkins Center at Rangoon University in Burma. "RanHop" was SAIS' first overseas program and served as a base for a small number of students to conduct field research in Southeast Asia. Excited by this discovery, Garten wrote to SAIS to express his interest in studying at RanHop when his military service was up. "I wrote this long letter about how I spoke Thai, worked along the border, and wanted to study there," he says. Some time later, he received a reply, dropped via airmail to the remote village, from a SAIS official who politely informed Garten that the Rangoon branch had closed its doors in 1959.</p> <p>After the army, Garten did earn a master's at SAIS, but in Washington. In 1974, a former SAIS professor asked if he wanted to write a research paper for the National Security Council. There'd be little pay, he was told, but Garten was game. "I thought it would be something interesting to do," he says. In the wake of the 1973 OPEC oil embargo, the NSC wanted to know whether the United States could be embargoed on other commodities. For several months, Garten did nothing but extract information from any expert he could. "I understood very early on my talent was for assimilating information and putting it in policy terms, which is what I learned at SAIS, although I didn't know that at the time," he says. "Actually, I can probably trace everything I did in my career right back to that paper."</p> <p>The well-received paper got the author noticed, and he was offered a position on Kissinger's staff. Garten chiefly wrote policy papers on international economics for people in the cabinet and subcabinet. "Through Kissinger, I seemingly got to know everyone in government," he says. He survived Nixon's resignation and stayed through the Carter administration, where he worked for Cyrus Vance as deputy director to the State Department's policy planning staff.</p> <p>Winston Lord, the former U.S. ambassador to China who served in the Nixon and Ford administrations, was instrumental in recruiting Garten to Kissinger's team. "He was the youngest man on my staff," Lord says."I think he even wore braces [on his teeth] at the time.</p> <p>But he was so gifted on policy planning at such a relatively young age. He was the perfect balance of self-confidence without being arrogant. Not pretentious, just very good at linking a scholarly approach to economic issues and policymaking."</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>In the summer of 1971, the Gartens had taken an extended camping trip in France, replete with pup tent and meals born out of excursions to outdoor markets and little shops. Jeffrey describes those meals as the best cooking ever to come from a camp stove, and Ina came back with an enduring love of French cuisine. She began working her way through Julia Child's Mastering the Art of French Cooking. After the couple moved to Washington, Ina took a job in the Federal Power Commission and later moved to the Office of Management and Budget, where she was the senior analyst for nuclear energy. "But she didn't like her work, so she poured her energy into cooking," Garten says. Ina relished trying new recipes on guests at what became famous Friday-night gatherings. Most weeks, the Gartens invited a group of colleagues, friends, and associated VIPs, including White House staff and journalists, to dinner parties that gave Ina a chance to practice her new hobby. "There wasn't a big plan," Garten says. "She just loved doing it. The dinner parties inspired her, and she got better and better at it."</p> <p>What came next can be found in nearly every introduction to Ina's cookbooks. In March 1978, she came across a for-sale ad in The New York Times for a little food store in West Hampton, New York, called The Barefoot Contessa. The couple drove up, poked around, and instantly fell in love with the property, which they bought with a second mortgage. "My wife wanted to change her life, and I was all for it," Garten says. Two months later, Ina quit her government job to move to New York and take over the store's day-to-day management. Jeffrey stayed on Kissinger's staff, commuting to New York on weekends for three months. The store became an instant success, and within a year Ina needed to relocate it to a larger property. When Lehman Brothers offered Jeffrey a job on Wall Street that fall, he took it.</p> <p>One of Garten's biggest projects for Lehman Brothers was in Hong Kong during the 1980s. The firm asked him to help save two massive shipping companies that were headed for bankruptcy, owing to an industry downturn. Garten convinced the companies to try restructuring their debt out of court first, as would a small country. Michael Tierney, who met Garten while he was the general counsel of American Express Bank for Asia, says what Garten proposed was unlike anything he'd come across in his time in international business. "He convinced the heads of these shipping companies, who saw no alternative to a disorderly winding down of their companies, to restructure. And it worked," he says. "In the end, everybody prospered and did quite well. The shipping cycle turned positive and they got back on their feet."</p> <p>In a world of oversized Wall Street egos, Tierney says, Garten stood out. He had persuasive charm and did his homework. "It was not only about making money with Jeff," says Tierney. "He enjoyed a breadth of interests, like geopolitics and history. So he often looked at the larger picture." Here was a man, Tierney says, who would spend hours cutting out Wall Street Journal articles with a small pair of scissors, later piecing them together to make a whole story or confirm a correlation. Tierney adds, "A special strength of his is the ability to engage, in a disarmingly intelligent manner, with the individuals who are essential to solving a problem. Those individuals are often antagonistic initially."</p> <p>Garten's Wall Street career lasted 13 years, until the Clinton administration came calling and he was asked to become the undersecretary of commerce for international trade. In 1995, while still at Commerce, Garten received a cold call from Yale President Richard Levin to become dean of the university's School of Management. Garten boils down Levin's pitch to this: Yale had a floundering school with a demoralized faculty and staff, and he wanted to try something different with someone who had both government and private sector experience and who wasn't an academic but had a PhD and some published work. Garten, who a few years prior had come out with his first book, <em>A Cold Peace: America, Japan, Germany, and the Struggle for Supremacy</em> (Times Books, 1992), checked all the boxes.</p> <p>Garten admits he knew nothing about academic management when he took the job. But recognizing that the school needed to forge a stronger, more focused identity, Garten says he began with one overarching idea: The school should produce students in the mold of two exemplars. One was Fred Smith, chairman and CEO of FedEx, who could not only create an innovative company but run it and grow it. The second was James D. Wolfensohn, the noted investment banker, philanthropist, and former president of the World Bank, who could traverse sectors and combine commercial savvy and generosity of heart to drive positive change around the world.</p> <p>During Garten's decade as dean, he transformed the school by bolstering the faculty, engaging alumni, and creating institutions that helped define the school's agenda in research and education. Garten deflects some of the praise. "Yale has a lot of advantages," he says. "But I think I settled the school down and pointed it in the right direction. I did a few things I thought were important at the time, and the Yale reputation took over from there."</p> <p>Garten says what has always tied his work together is knowing his audience and what they want to know. "I think one of my strengths is understanding what people need in the way of information. In some ways my life has been diverse, but I've always focused on summarizing often complicated issues."</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>As Garten pursued his post-Washington career on Wall Street and at Yale, his wife's business took off. Based on the success of The Barefoot Contessa shop and Ina's first cookbook, the Food Network came calling. Executives at the cable network had seen her do a spot on <em>The Martha Stewart Show</em> and thought she was a natural. What did she think about hosting her own cooking show? Ina resisted. Several times. "Then and now, she sees herself as a cookbook writer," Garten says. Ina was a big fan of British cooking personality Nigella Lawson and her show <em>Nigella Bites</em>, and she would only consider doing a program if she had full control and it resembled Lawson's. Food Network pried Lawson's producer away and brought him to the States, and the rest is culinary TV history. The Gartens built a barn in back of the East Hampton house, where she could cook, write more books, and film <em>Barefoot Contessa</em>.</p> <p>From its onset, the show played up the happy marriage of its host. Although Jeffrey gets scant screen time and often several episodes go by without him, he's never far from the program. Many meals are "for Jeffrey," or inspired by their trips to Paris. She often makes his favorites, whether it's chicken or coffee ice cream. Her line "Jeffrey would love this!" appears often enough it could be turned into a drinking game. Ina's next book, due out in October, is called <em>Cooking for Jeffrey</em> and includes her husband's most oft-requested dishes, interspersed with anecdotes from their many years together. "We don't have any children. I'm her family," he says. "And she is all about family cooking. So there never was any contemplation on her part that I wouldn't be part of this show. That didn't mean I had to be on every episode, but she had to talk about me and explain that one of her motivations for cooking is her husband. And that had the virtue of being the absolute truth. I'm not on there as much as people think, but she is always talking about me as if I was."</p> <p>When he does appear on the show, Jeffrey enjoys the experience and the good-natured teasing he gets because of it. Many episodes are timed to his comings and goings. Sometimes when he's around, Ina sends him out shopping and, yes, he really did mistakenly buy a cabbage instead of lettuce one time. And, yes, he really does like a drink now and again, as Ina documents when she posts #drunkhubby pics to Instagram. In one episode, Jeffrey yearned to buy a boat, but Ina reminded him that he is a klutz, plus she would be saddled with the cleaning. "That debate between us really happened," he says. "There is little on the show that is contrived. Like when I bought her a box of brownies on our anniversary. That's real. I got a huge amount of stick for that episode. How could I be so stingy and just buy my wife a box of brownies! But when I was in college, Ina would bake me brownies and send them to me, and I'd share them with my friends. That's our thing!"</p> <p>A writer from Yale's newspaper once asked him if being a doofus on television was intentional. "I told my wife what he asked me, and she said: 'That's it, I'm ruining your reputation,'" he says. "I told her no way. Everyone understands I'm not just a doofus. The shows are designed for people to have a good time and learn something. I don't take myself so seriously."</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>Garten writes mostly on the weekends, holed up in a small study. He pens first drafts mostly by hand. He had written about globalization before, notably in his 1997 book <em>The Big Ten: The Big Emerging Markets and How They Will Change Our Lives</em>. For this new book, he wanted to tell the story of globalization as it hadn't been told before. Rather than discussing contemporary events, trends, industries, and policy, he focused on 10 people who did something so transformational that the impact of their achievements affected not only the times they lived in but the world we inhabit today. As a guide, Garten followed Robert Heilbroner's classic <em>The Worldly Philosophers</em>, which explains economics through the lives of a few legendary economists. Garten selected not just big thinkers but big doers. They lived in much different periods, but they had several things in common. One, they were flawed people, even cruel when they deemed it necessary. Genghis Khan slaughtered thousands in building his vast empire; Deng Xiaoping ordered his troops to massacre Chinese citizens at Tiananmen Square. They nearly all had one major idea they obsessed over from a young age. They all refused to accept failure and demonstrated resilience in the face of daunting setbacks. And each unwittingly unleashed powers of globalization that lasted well beyond their lifetimes. He gives the example of Genghis Khan, who needed the Silk Road in order to maximize the benefit of the sprawling empire he built. "For many of these people, globalization came about as a problem that needed solving. It had nothing to do with the benefit of mankind."</p> <p>While largely an instructional history lesson that covers the past 800 years, the book does touch on the complex troubles of the modern world, such as climate change, cyberwarfare, horrific humanitarian problems, and challenges to Western values from Russia, China, and radical Islam. But for Garten, the state of humanity's present is not justification for isolationism but a reason to double down on globalization to reap the progress that will come years down the line.</p> <p>"The modern globalization crisis, as I see it, is that the consensus for more international cooperation, in a world where so many of the issues are deeply global, has broken down," he says. "There's too much go-it-alone nationalism, too much xenophobia. As my book says, globalization is the most important and powerful force acting on our lives. But look at how little global issues play in the election, except negatively."</p> <p>Garten concludes with an optimistic perspective on the future. Humankind's best years, he contends, lie ahead. "The main point [to my book] is that when it comes to globalization, despite its overwhelming force and complexity, human beings can make a positive difference," he says. "They have in the past, as I document, and my conclusion is that many more will do so in the future."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Why you can't stop checking your phone <h3>PUBLISHED IN: <em>Current Biology</em>, February 22, 2016</h3> <h3>TITLE: The Role of Dopamine in Value-Based Attentional Orienting</h3> <p><strong>Dopamine</strong> is a chemical released in the brain by neurons to transmit signals to other neurons. Most forms of reward—chocolate, a funny email, winning a game, music—result in more dopamine flooding our brains.</p> <p>Think of attention as what your brain has selected to be aware of from all that sensory input. The brain cannot attend to everything that comes in through our senses. It must pick and choose: pay attention to this, don't pay attention to that. This is <strong>attentional orienting</strong>. It's like tuning a radio to a specific frequency.</p> <p>Whenever we imbue something with value—that is, when we attach a reward of some kind to an object or action—we alter how the brain processes certain stimuli. Those processes become <strong>value-based.</strong></p> <h3>SUMMARY:</h3> <p>Attention has been getting a lot of attention. Mindfulness meditation, the power of habit, the productivity gains of doing one thing at a time—all have cycled through the attenuated attention span of the public. Pay attention, we remind ourselves time and again, taking for granted that focus is something over which we have complete control.</p> <p>Neuroscientists attend to attention as well, probing the brain to figure out what happens when we focus and when we lose focus. A research team led by Susan M. Courtney, a professor of psychological and brain sciences in the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, recently completed research initiated by the late Steven Yantis to determine how reward might affect attention. They learned that when it comes to paying attention, our brain chemistry has a say in the matter.</p> <p>Courtney et al. asked 20 research volunteers to look at different colored objects on computer screens and pick out the red and green ones. For each red object they found, they were paid $1.50; for each green, $0.25. The next day, the researchers monitored the volunteers' brains with PET scanners as they watched the monitors again, only this time they'd been asked to pick out shapes. The color of the objects did not matter and there were no rewards, yet whenever the subjects glimpsed something red, they tended to automatically focus on it, and a part of their brains involved in attention became flushed with dopamine. The rewards from the day before were still directing their attention, and they had no say in it. The level of distraction correlated with the amount of dopamine released. So our brains pull us back to things that rewarded us in the past. The more distracted a test subject was, as measured by how slow they were to respond to the relevant shape when the previously rewarded color was present, the greater the release of dopamine. Some people may be better at overriding chemically driven distraction than others.</p> <p>Hey, is that a doughnut?</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Violinist Courtney Orlando steps into her new role as artistic director of Peabody's new music ensemble <p>Violinist Courtney Orlando joined the string section of the Princeton Symphony Orchestra for a December holiday pops concert and had a blast. "It was the first time I had played in an orchestra in a dozen years," she says, sitting on the sofa in her Prince­ton, New Jersey, home in early January. "But I loved it and I'm doing it again. We're doing music from films." She barely suppresses a smile, referring to an upcoming pops concert with the PSO. The program includes such things as "Let It Go," that inescapable earworm from Disney's animated <em>Frozen</em>. Orlando adds, "We're going to play the theme from <em>Jaws</em>."</p> <p>Orlando says this with irrepressible glee, acknowledging the humor in having such a gig on her concert calendar. If classical musicians and fans know Orlando at all, it is not through pops concerts. Over the past 15 years, she has established herself as a celebrated performer of new music, which she defines as music composed from the 1970s on. Frequently, and unfairly, "new music" is also assumed to mean difficult, atonal, complex, or otherwise inaccessible. This academic year, after teaching ear training at the Peabody Conservatory from 2004 to 2015, she became artistic director of Now Hear This, the conservatory's new music ensemble.</p> <p>She's spent her professional life playing in the smaller groups that specialize in repertoires not much older than she is—she turns 40 this year—music that is often written for a particular ensemble and its instrumentation and rehearsed in collaboration with the composer. Orlando plays with Ensemble Signal, her own Trio Chimera, and most notably Alarm Will Sound, one of the more celebrated new music ensembles in America since its 2001 debut. This contemporary chamber ensemble has helped reinvigorate the performance of, and audience for, new music. In addition to playing works by familiar new music composers—such as Luciano Berio, John Cage, György Ligeti, Conlon Nancarrow, Steve Reich, and Edgard Varèse—the group has commissioned pieces from living composers such as Anna Clyne, Nico Muhly, and Augusta Read Thomas. It has also taken an eclectic approach to programming, putting Frank Zappa's "Dog Breath Variations/Uncle Meat" and John Cale's soundtrack for Andy Warhol's film <em>Kiss</em> alongside works by John Adams, Cage, and Varèse. In 2004, Alarm Will Sound started performing and eventually recorded an album of works by the British electronic musician Aphex Twin (née Richard D. James), one of the more adventurous and genuinely odd artists to emerge out of Britain's explosion of intelligent dance music in the 1990s. In Aphex Twin's "Prep Gwarlek 3b," off his 2001 album <em>Drukqs</em>, a series of low tones pulsates over an echoing percussive rattle that sounds like anxious footsteps fleeing down a dark alley. Alarm Will Sound pulls that off with moody aplomb on the 2005 album <em>Acoustica</em>.</p> <p>"The Aphex Twin project felt really groundbreaking for a classical ensemble to tackle in the way that we were tackling it," says Alan Pierson, Alarm Will Sound's co-founding artistic director and conductor. He notes there were precedents for a classical ensemble interpreting popular music—such as Bang on a Can's 1998 recording of Brian Eno's ambient album <em>Music for Airports</em>—but adds that when Alarm Will Sound first started out, "the idea of a group that tried to embrace the full breadth of what was happening in contemporary music felt pretty fresh and new and necessary at the time. And that now just feels like the way the world is."</p> <p>Pierson met Orlando in graduate school at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, New York, when she started playing with a student-run new music group called Ossia. That group, which Pierson had co-founded, evolved into Alarm Will Sound in 2001. Orlando "is just a gorgeous player," he says. "She plays the violin really beautifully. She has amazing ears and is very perceptive—in rehearsals she picks up on everything—and is keyed in to lots of different things. I think that makes her a remarkable person to have in the group as an artist and collaborator."</p> <p>Playing new music today requires a different skill set, Pierson says, such as handling complicated rhythms and dealing with unconventional ways of playing one's instrument. "The level at which players are tackling this repertoire is increasing over time, and there's a kind of stylistic flexibility and virtuosity that's required," Pierson says. Performers need "the ability to understand different kinds of styles and change their sound and the way they play to do what's on the music stand. That's another area where Courtney is really exceptional. She is among the best musicians I've worked with."</p> <p>Composer Oscar Bettison witnessed Orlando's chameleonlike skill firsthand. He met Orlando when he joined Peabody's Composition Department in 2009 and she volunteered to play his solo violin piece "Neolithic Air" as part of a concert. The piece required the violin to be detuned and played with extended techniques, the umbrella term for any unconventional approach to producing sound from an instrument. "That's a really tricky thing for somebody who has perfect pitch to do [and] many violinists just wouldn't want to do something so strange to their instrument," he says. "She did it and did it happily. She's willing to take on anything but with that is an incredible musicality." Bettison is writing a new piece specifically for Orlando that, if funding comes through, they hope to premiere in 2017. "She's absolutely fearless," he says. "Composers like that."</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>Orlando says she feels very lucky to have a career that she didn't even know existed in the 1990s when she began her undergraduate studies at Temple University, then moved on to graduate school at Eastman. Like many young players, she imagined that a music career meant school, then orchestra, maybe becoming a touring soloist. She soon understood that she wasn't on the same level as her music school peers. She didn't have the instrumental chops, not yet, and she didn't have the interest in doing what was required to learn them. "I realized there was no way I was going to get into an orchestra. When you take an orchestra audition, they want you to do things a certain way, and I didn't want to do it that way. They're looking for what's going to fill a role, and I knew it wasn't me."</p> <p>She concedes that she didn't have the patience for learning the standard orchestral repertoire, which for violinists often means showy pieces that didn't fit her personality. "I just really pushed against the rep, the fluffy violin rep," she says of the compositions conservatory students are typically required to master, such as pieces by Pablo de Sarasate and Niccolò Paganini. "I just didn't like the music. To me, there was no substance in it. It was all just for show, and I wasn't a showy kind of player. I'm still not." She gives Tchaikovsky as another example. "Trust me, you do not want to hear me play Tchaikovsky. Sometimes I do it just for fun, to make myself laugh, because I can't do it. Tchaikovsky has some great melodies, but anytime it gets to all the noodly business, it just seems like a waste of time."</p> <p>Brahms, on the other hand, is virtuosic with substance. "He's one of my favorite composers," she says, adding that "he never has a moment where he's relaxing, so to speak. His transitional materials are substantial; nothing is ever just to tread water. People argue with me about Tchaikovsky, but that kind of composer who writes a pattern that's flashy just for the sake of being flashy—to me, I don't know. I prefer musical virtuosity over technical virtuosity, maybe that's the easiest way to say it."</p> <p>In graduate school, she initially pursued a PhD in music theory. But two years into her theory studies, she started to miss performing and began seeking opportunities to play. Eastman is "where my eyes opened to a billion different things that I didn't know existed, including new music," she says, citing Musica Nova, the school's new music ensemble, and the student-formed Ossia. She soon met Pierson, who invited her to work with the latter ensemble. She also started collaborating with a pianist to perform contemporary sonatas. "I was trying to do music that I didn't think anyone else was doing," she says. "And by my doing new music, people [at school] started to know who I was."</p> <p>She realized the violin was what she should be studying. To do that, she was going to have to go through all the "fluffy" stuff. "My teacher insisted on me doing a few of the virtuosic pieces, but he also wanted me to decide what I was going to play," Orlando says of Oleh Krysa, the Ukrainian violinist who became her mentor. She eventually earned a master's in music theory pedagogy and a violin doctorate, and in addition to learning the discipline and technique for the canon, she was encouraged to shape her own repertoire. For her first doctoral recital she performed Aaron Copland's Nocturne, Bartok's first sonata for violin and piano, and Berio's Corale, a performance that drew praise from her teacher and his peers. "I loved it, and that was a really good feeling. That's when I started to feel, 'I can do this.'"</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>These days Orlando enviably spends almost all of her time working on and playing the music that interests her. That means she has to run around a bit. Two weeks into 2016, her spring calendar was full. Between Christmas and New Year's she married Irish composer Donnacha Dennehy in Ireland. On January 3, they started rehearsals for the opera <em>The Last Hotel</em>; he's the composer, she's part of the ensemble. Alarm Will Sound began recording a new piece by Reich in February, then she has concerts and rehearsals with two of the new music ensembles of which she's a member. Also in February, she began her trips to Baltimore to prepare for Now Hear This' spring concerts, which feature Reich's "New York Counterpoint," "Music for Pieces of Wood," and "Music for 18 Musicians," a seminal new music piece that students have never performed at Peabody. Since it debuted in 1976, it has become both a signature work of American minimalism and a contemporary classical work that fans of contemporary rock, jazz, and electronic music know and enjoy.</p> <p>Alarm Will Sound provided Orlando with a similarly broad range of musical ideas, as its concerts and collaborations keep one foot in the symphony hall and one in the larger art-music world. In 2010, Alarm Will Sound collaborated with the indie-rock band Dirty Projectors for a string of performances in New York, Los Angeles, and London. Last year, Orlando and a few other Alarm Will Sound string players were recruited to perform with Bjork, playing six of the Icelandic avant-pop star's dates behind her strings-heavy 2015 album <em>Vulnicura</em>. "I usually don't tell my students what projects I'm working on because I don't want to sound like I'm bragging, but when I played with Bjork, I couldn't help myself," Orlando says, adding how impressed she was by the entire experience. "She's such a great performer, [the music] is all her ideas, and we weren't [just] the 'backing band.' We were part of a work that's musically substantial and it felt like we were part of the process."</p> <p>The concerts gave Orlando something that many classical players never experience: the opportunity to perform with a living musician whose art is adored. At the first Carnegie Hall show, the string players were already onstage playing an intro before Bjork entered. "The screaming when she came out—I had never heard a sound like that in my life," Orlando says. "I started crying. A few people said they welled up, too. I seriously just got overwhelmed. It was amazing, the music was beautiful, and, you know, I had this dumb list of things in my head that I want to do before I die, and play with Bjork was one of them. I just figured that was never going to happen. But it did."</p> <p><div class="magazine-section-break"></div> </p> <p>Orlando is so enthusiastic about Now Hear This in part because when she was in school 10 or 15 years ago, new music wasn't a significant part of her education. She invited Dennehy to work with Now Here This for its fall 2015 debut semester. She needed a composer to "come on the friends-and-family rate because we had to do it on a budget, and I trusted him, knew he'd do a good job, and knew people would like the music." The first concert featured work by Dennehy and two composers who have inspired him, Julia Wolfe, whose oratorio <em>Anthracite Fields</em> won the 2015 Pulitzer Prize for music, and the late French composer Gérard Grisey.</p> <p>Preparing and rehearsing for the concert, which was last November, immersed the students in the process of working with a living composer. Orlando says the students were a little nervous at first to talk to Dennehy in rehearsals. "I told them to ask him questions about the music," she says. "Here's your chance—he's alive and in the room. Ask him." That learning opportunity spread throughout the debut concert's program, which included a movement from Grisey's <em>Vortex Temporum</em>. It's a microtonal work that requires the piano to be detuned and the rest of the instruments tuned to it. Learning to perform that piece meant getting the students to listen to an unfamiliar piano sound and play along with it. "At first I think they thought it was just a bunch of long tones," Orlando says, adding that she had Dennehy, who also composes microtonal pieces, talk with them about why a composer is using this idiosyncratic sound palette. Dennehy got the students to think about the intentionality behind Grisey's score, what the composer was trying to achieve not simply for individual instruments but the entire work. "When the microtones are in tune, it has this otherworldly sound," Orlando says. "It was great to hear that piece as [the students] started taking it more and more seriously. There were a lot of light-bulb moments and, by the end, it sounded amazing. I was so proud of them."</p> <p>"It's important for students to get the experience of playing new music but also to work with composers," Bettison says. "It's also important for composers to learn how to deal with an ensemble, going through multiple rehearsals and then an actual performance. These are just skill sets that we want our students to have going forward."</p> <p>He adds that Now Hear This can help students imagine that many career paths are possible in music. "The way people are taught in conservatories, especially in strings, is they're taught to think that they're going to become international soloists, which is completely crazy," Bettison says, pointing out that this situation is endemic to conservatories around the world. For a violinist fresh out of school in this day and age to land a spot in the second violin section of a regional orchestra would represent a pretty good gig. Landing a spot in the second violins of a big symphony orchestra would be an incredible gig. But given the current mindset of conservatories, Bettison says, students are taught to regard either as settling for second best. "Working to become a concertmaster of an internationally renowned symphony orchestra, that should be something that's beyond the moon," he says. "But the way that students are taught is that [even] that would be a step down. This is insanity. So giving our students the idea that there is another way of having a career is very important."</p> <p>That experience is one of the reasons Fred Bronstein wanted to see Peabody ramp up its new music environment when he became dean in 2014. "Philosophically, it is so important for students to be involved in the music of our time and to have the experience of working with composers," Bronstein says. "I played for many years in a new music ensemble when I started in my career, and you learn an awful lot about music by working with composers and learning how composers think. So aside from the music itself, it's something you take back to everything you play. So I think giving our students that perspective and having this sense of new music infused in the culture of the school is really important."</p> <p>For three years in the 2000s, then Peabody graduate student Ann Theresa Kang created and ran the Conservatory Avant-Garde Ensemble, a short-lived new music ensemble. Bronstein says that in talks with his faculty colleagues, he believed Peabody needed a flexible ensemble that would play works by living composers, bring composers to campus, and foster a more collaborative relationship between the composition department and the musicians. Now Hear This became that ensemble, with Orlando as artistic director and composer David Smooke as the faculty adviser. "I will tell you this: Its first concert we had in the fall, the sense of excitement among the people who came and the sense of energy around starting this ensemble was palpable and really fantastic," Bronstein says. "And it was a great concert. We want to create a more robust environment for contemporary music here. Peabody is the oldest conservatory in the country but we want to be on the forefront of new things that are going on in music because it's really important."</p> <p>When American conservatories came into existence in the 19th century, the music being written by living composers was part of the education. They visited music schools and the students performed their work. That was new music then, and now it has become part of the classical canon. Why don't conservatories do that anymore? "Somehow, we appreciated how new music evolved in the olden days," Orlando says. "I want us to be interested in the way it continues to evolve. We want new music to become a part of the classical music landscape. We want to be included in the conversation."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Pledged for life <p>Most would agree November is not the ideal month to whiz down Maryland roads in a convertible with the top down. But one Thanksgiving holiday Jim Miller, A&S '64, and Doug Harper, Engr '66, found themselves cruising al fresco, trying to keep warm in a two-seater car despite the raw air. They'd driven to Westminster, Maryland, to pick up Joyce, the young woman who would become Miller's wife, from what is now McDaniel College and drive her back to her family's home in Baltimore. For all three to fit in the car, they needed to put the top down while Joyce perched on the armrest between the driver's and passenger's seats. Decades later, they still laugh about their unconventional ride.</p> <p>Their friendship traces back to their Johns Hopkins undergrad days, when Harper was a freshman and Miller a junior. The rush chair for Sigma Phi Epsilon at the time, Miller encouraged Harper to pledge. Harper did, and he's adamant that the decision was one of the best he has ever made. Harper, Miller, and their fraternity brother Bill Day, Engr '66, went on to rent an off-campus apartment together for $125 per month. They remember telling the landlord that if he gave them supplies, they'd paint the apartment for him. When the landlord complied, the roommates called up Goucher College and Notre Dame of Maryland University—the places where they knew girls—and invited people over for a painting party. Word spread, and more than 30 people showed up to get the job done.</p> <p>That summer, Miller invited Harper to live at his parents' home so they could both work for Bethlehem Steel. The Millers embraced Harper, even allowing him to use their garage to tear apart and rebuild the transmission in his '49 Ford. Those months solidified the friendship. "It's one of those things that happens without being something that you try to make happen," Miller says. "It develops because you realize this is a person with whom you can spend time and enjoy their company, enjoy their intellect."</p> <p>Miller went on to practice law and raise three daughters in Connecticut. Harper built a career with IBM and resides in Maryland with his wife; they adopted two children. Both graduates remain active in the Alumni Association; Miller founded and led the Connecticut chapter and was elected to the Alumni Council in 1996. He nominated Harper to the Council in 2002, and Harper served until 2008. They still make time for one another, be it seeing Jersey Boys on Broadway, attending an Alumni College on Maryland's Eastern Shore, or chatting via phone.</p> <p>To one another, they're family. "To be honest with you, I view Jim as my closest relative," says Harper. "He's my brother," Miller agrees. "Not just my fraternity brother. He's my brother."</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 School of Public Health hosts 100 dinners to celebrate centennial <p>In New Delhi they gathered over biryani and chicken lababdar. In Seoul it was short rib patties. Groundnuts, chicken, and cassava were on the menu in Uganda, while in Baltimore, it was bowls of chili. Though the dishes varied as widely as the time zones in which they were served, there was a single purpose: to celebrate the Bloomberg School of Public Health's centennial.</p> <p>Launched last summer, the Centennial 100 Dinners initiative invites alumni, students, faculty, staff, and friends of the school to come together for a meal. The call to table has so far been answered in more than 20 countries—from Peru to the Philippines—and the 100-dinner goal was surpassed in December. (Don't worry; dinners will continue throughout 2016.)</p> <p>Dean Michael J. Klag, SPH '87, popped in on the New Delhi event in October. "There's something pretty special about so many people who work in different countries and different parts of the public health community coming together to enjoy a meal, united by our school's mission," he says. The Delhi dinner was among the largest to date, with more than 30 people noshing on 15 different Indian dishes—and that's not including desserts. It was hosted by Ashok Agarwal, SPH '83, a university trustee and founder of the Indian Institute of Health Management Research, which runs a collaborative master of public health degree program with the Bloomberg School. For Klag, Agarwal's participation had special significance: "There was this wonderful sense of a cycle completed—a young physician who came to Hopkins to study public health returned to India and accomplished great things, and now is a bridge between Baltimore and India."</p> <p>As far-flung members of the Bloomberg School family continue to break bread together—be it naan, pita, or brioche—the hope is that the connections established and friendships renewed will continue beyond the meal.</p> <p>William Checkley, Engr '93, SPH '96, '02 (PhD), the medical director of Johns Hopkins Medicine International and an assistant professor in the Bloomberg School, has made it to four dinners so far—two in Peru, two in Africa. "I'm going to be in London later this year," he says. "Maybe we'll organize one with fish and chips."</p> <p>Want to host a dinner? Visit <a href=""></a>.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Alumni Journeys program turns alumni into travel companions <p>Standing at the peak of a dormant volcano on Hawaii's Big Island, a group of Johns Hopkins alumni and their spouses gathered around a 73-foot telescope, gazing at the sunlight bouncing off its gigantic 8.3-meter-wide mirror. The group had ascended nearly 14,000 feet above sea level to the summit of Mauna Kea, where a mild climate and clear skies create ideal viewing conditions for astronomers, to see the Subaru Telescope, one of the world's largest. Staff tipped the telescope so alumni could take pictures of the mirror, which helps astronomers map the sky in fine detail, and let them wander through the normally off-limits rooms where they store and refurbish cameras and spectrographs.</p> <p>Since 1972, the Johns Hopkins Alumni Journeys program has turned Johns Hopkins alumni into travel companions, bringing groups to exotic and adventurous destinations, including Cuba, South Africa, Alaska, and Italy. The program, which organized December's Hawaiian getaway, offers roughly 30 trips annually. Many trips include faculty lectures, where leading experts share insights about the historical, scientific, or cultural background of a destination.</p> <p>In part, the weeklong Hawaii trip highlighted astronomical research. For one of his lectures, trip leader Timothy Heckman, chair of the Department of Physics & Astronomy, focused on the Prime Focus Spectrograph project, an $80 million effort of Johns Hopkins University, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, and eight other institutions. Paired with the Subaru Telescope, the new spectrograph will allow astronomers to look at thousands of galaxies simultaneously and create a census of the universe over time that is more precise than ever. "You can identify the age of what you're looking at, what it's made of, how far away it is," Heckman says. "The goal is to understand how we got here and what our ultimate destiny will be." Through these talks, retired orthopedic surgeon Scott Starks, A&S '74, says Heckman "was able to explain astronomy in terminology that we could relate to."</p> <p>The Hawaii trip also showcased the beauty of the Big Island's rainy east coast. "You had all the cliffs and vines, multicolored birds and insects, and there are flowers everywhere, any time of year," Starks says. Local guides led field trips to the Tropical Botanical Garden and Volcanoes National Park. At the park, home to two active volcanoes, Don Swanson, A&S '64 (PhD), former scientist-in-charge of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, met with the group to talk about the forces that created the volcanoes.</p> <p>Later, over pork and papaya, the group talked about getting together for a Johns Hopkins lacrosse game in the spring. Starks couldn't help but notice how at ease the group members were with one another. "You can go on a tour with a bunch of strangers and never have that one thing to get back to," he says. "The fact that we went to Hopkins, it forms a bond."</p> <p>More information at: <a href=""></a>.</p> Tue, 15 Mar 2016 14:00:00 -0400 Johns Hopkins astrophysicists seek to find out what happened after the Big Bang <p> <div class="embedded-image force align-full size-full_width portrait"> <img src="//" alt="" /> </div> </p>