Johns Hopkine Magazine The latest from Johns Hopkins Magazine. Johns Hopkine Magazine Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Growing designer blood cells in a lab <p>For the last 20 years, hematologist Linzhao Cheng has been trying to solve a problem that has vexed researchers for even longer: how to produce an ample supply of red blood cells for use in transfusions. For patients suffering from blood disorders such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and myelodysplastic syndromes, life-prolonging blood transfusions are often part of a treatment regimen. But donor blood is always in short supply, and mismatched blood types can cause serious problems. Repeated transfusions also come with potential risks—from an unhealthy buildup of iron to allergic reactions to a rejection of the new blood by the patient's immune system, leading to kidney damage and other complications. "No matter how carefully a doctor tries to match a patient's blood, you will eventually have immune rejection because it's another person's blood," says Cheng, a professor of medicine and oncology and chair of the Department of Hematology at the School of Medicine. "The efficacy of transfusion gets worse and worse, and you need more frequent transfusions, leading to a vicious cycle."</p> <p>In his lab, Cheng, who is also a member of the Johns Hopkins Institute for Cell Engineering, had already created red blood cells from embryonic stem cells, but that didn't solve the issue. Embryonic stem cells would be too challenging to source in sufficient numbers and because the cells are derived from embryos, not the patient, they no more match the patient than cells from a transfusion.</p> <p>Around 10 years ago, Cheng and his colleagues concentrated on using an emerging technique involving so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. These cells are derived from a person's blood or other tissue and are genetically reprogrammed in the lab to return them to an embryonic state. Just like embryonic stem cells, iPS cells can be manipulated to form any cell type—including blood cells—and they also proliferate indefinitely in the laboratory. "Essentially, we were able to reverse the biological clock in the test tube," says Cheng of producing the nascent iPS cells. The promise was that by using a sample of a patient's blood, researchers would be able to grow an unlimited supply of matched, transfusion-ready blood cells. The team published its results in 2008, following pioneering studies by Japanese researcher Shinya Yamanaka, who won a Nobel Prize in 2012.</p> <p>But everything did not work as planned. While the team successfully produced red corpuscles from iPS cells, when researchers tried to coax the iPS cells into producing blood-forming stem cells—like those found in bone marrow and used in transfusions—they were less successful. In animal trials, the laboratory-grown blood stem cells would not settle and stay in the marrow, where they needed to be to generate mature blood cells.</p> <p>Cheng decided to change course. Instead of trying to create blood-forming stem cells, he concentrated on "fixing" the genetic defects found in the mature red blood cells. "I thought, 'Do I really have to create the blood-forming stem cell? Can we just go to the final product—that is, reprogram the [defective] red blood cell?'"</p> <p>With a 2011 grant from the Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund, Cheng and his group were able to test the theory in his laboratory. Using blood samples from people with sickle cell disease, the team reprogrammed mature red blood cells into iPS cells and then employed a relatively new gene-editing technology to prune the gene variant and replace it with a healthy version before growing the stem cells back into mature cells. In theory, since the iPS cells are developed directly from the patient—using his or her own blood cells—there shouldn't be any immune system complications when transfused.</p> <p>Cheng admits that clinical trials are years away. First, researchers must see if they can produce sufficient numbers of the designer blood cells and, most importantly, make sure they are safe and function correctly before transfusing them into a patient.</p> <p>If the technique works, it could also have an impact on treating other diseases such as malaria, in which parasites infect and damage red blood cells. The concept would involve creating custom cells resistant to the infection and growth of malaria-causing parasites. "The idea would be to create a genetic modification that is just good enough to block the door of entry to the parasites," he says.</p> <p>Cheng has applied for grants from the Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund as well as the National Institutes of Health to conduct additional experiments. "The fact that we haven't been able to solve this problem so far is frustrating," he says, "but it's also the reality."</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 How a rare, stolen book ended up in the Sheridan Libraries <p>Earlier this year, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement set up a display of 19 cultural artifacts that had been stolen from Italy and were about to be returned. There were a 17th-century cannon, a Byzantine gold pendant, three frescoes illegally excavated from Pompeii, a second-century bronze bust, and books, including a 1672 edition of Ferrante Imperato's <em>Historia naturale…di minere, pietre pretiose, & altre curiosità</em> (<em>Natural history of minerals, precious stones, and other curiosities</em>). That last item had been stolen from the Historical National Library of Agriculture in Rome and turned up in an unexpected place—in the Sheridan Libraries on the Homewood campus.</p> <p>Before we go any further, no, no one from Johns Hopkins stole the book. And yes, there is a back story.</p> <p>The <em>Historia naturale</em>, first published in 1599, was based, in part, on the contents of the author's vast specimen collection displayed at the Neapolitan Palazzo Gravina: a catalog of sorts of the vast natural history collection assembled by Ferrante Imperato, a wealthy apothecary who lived in Naples in the 16th and early 17th centuries. Imperato gathered specimens on his travels throughout southern Italy and developed an international reputation as one of Europe's foremost experimental scientists. He assembled examples of minerals, exotic medicinal plants, shells, coral, and sea creatures, and carefully organized them according to their elemental properties (earths, salts, fats, metals, fiery matter, etc.). He was among the first to establish that fossils were not inorganic earth objects but the actual remains of organic creatures.</p> <p>Earle Havens, the curator of rare books and manuscripts at the Sheridan Libraries, says of catalogs like the <em>Historia naturale</em>, "People sometimes refer to these volumes as 'paper museums.'" Often they are all that remains. "The original museums almost never survive. The only place they survive is in books."</p> <p>Havens knew about the <em>Historia naturale</em>, which is not only a beautiful book but has a remarkable engraving on its first pages—the oldest known image of a natural history museum. The Sheridan Libraries holds one of the world's most extensive collections of books that document the development of museums (including a 1599 copy of <em>Historia naturale</em>), and when Havens learned in late 2011 that a fine copy of the rare second edition of Imperato's volume had become available in the antiquarian book trade, he bought it for the Sheridan Libraries. The dealer, an established antiquarian bookseller who had done business with the Sheridan Libraries for years, had acquired the <em>Historia naturale</em> from an Italian auction house in Florence.</p> <p>No one involved in the auction realized that the book had been purloined, probably not long before it was sold through the auctioneers, which is not unusual in the world of rare and unique books. The theft was not discovered and reported to Italian police until May 2013. Later that same year, the dealer called the Sheridan Libraries to inform Havens of the authorities' suspicion that the book had been stolen, and not long after that, an agent from ICE's Homeland Security Investigations arrived unannounced to claim it. As soon as Havens could verify that the copy of the book in the library's possession was indeed the pilfered volume described in official documents, Johns Hopkins arranged for its return. The dealer, who was not at fault (blame for insufficient diligence probably falls on the auction house, though the large majority of rare books have little or no evidence of former ownership), refunded the purchase price.</p> <p>Havens was sorry to part with the book, but the tale has a happy ending. Not long after he gave back that copy of the <em>Historia naturale</em>, a better 1672 edition in deluxe condition—one of the finest copies in the world—came on the market and the library elected immediately to acquire it. In the Department of Special Collections in the Brody Learning Commons on the Homewood campus, Havens shows off this edition, of which only a handful are known to exist in such beautiful form: not as one bound book but two large volumes on heavy and expensive paper, in the original bindings, printed in red and black ink, with the all-important opening engraving untrimmed and so large it must be folded out to be fully seen and appreciated. The many other engravings in the book are superior to those of the copy that was stolen, too, for they are all early strikes of the plates, which wore down over time, making inferior impressions later in the print run. In all respects, it's a finer book than the one that had been filched from the Italian agricultural library. "I'm so relieved it worked out this way," Havens says. "Hopkins really lucked out."</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Muslim fiction writers are turning to genres like sci-fi, fantasy, and comics <p><em>Alif the Unseen</em>, the 2012 debut novel of G. Willow Wilson, takes an inventive approach to the contemporary techno thriller. Its titular hacktivist is a freelance security provider trying to evade the oppressive state censors in the unnamed emirate where he lives. And he's aided in his efforts by a mystical, ancient text titled <em>One Thousand and One Arabian Days</em>. Wilson, a young American woman who converted to Islam after moving to Egypt and falling in love in the early 2000s, seamlessly blends elements of fantasy, dystopian adventure, Islamic literature, and contemporary politics into a genre-defying literary read.</p> <p>And for Noor Hashem, a Mellon postdoctoral fellow in the Humanities, Wilson's <em>Alif</em> is a prime example of how a growing number of Muslim fiction writers are turning to genres like science fiction, fantasy, and comics to navigate Muslim identity and aesthetics in a post-Sept. 11 world.</p> <p>"She's really someone who is taking charge in this field," Hashem says, adding that Wilson is an active comics writer and part of the creative team behind one of the most successful mainstream examples of this trend: Marvel Comics' reboot of <em>Ms. Marvel</em>. In the Marvel universe, three different women characters have gone by the Ms. Marvel name since the late 1960s, and the super-heroine series relaunched last year with Kamala Khan in the title role. Khan is a Pakistani-American teenager living with her parents in New Jersey, the first Muslim character to headline a comic in the publisher's history.</p> <p>Hashem became a fantasy and science fiction fan growing up in Southern California, but she wasn't going to consider genre fiction when she was working on her English dissertation at Cornell University. In "Creative Ritual: Embodied Faith and Secular Reason in Contemporary Muslim Fiction," Hashem examines how contemporary authors portray the faith practices of Muslim characters living in a secular world. She spent the past year preparing that dissertation for publication, and when her ongoing research kept bringing her into contact with examples of Muslim fiction writers turning to genres like sci-fi and comics that fit her thesis, she realized she couldn't ignore them. She's currently adding a chapter about the genre to her in-progress book, and this fall at Johns Hopkins she will teach Muslim Science Fiction, an introductory course that covers Muslim speculative fiction from Zakariya al-Qazwini's 13th-century <em>Awaj bin Anfaq</em>, about an alien who visits earth, up through contemporary examples such as Saladin Ahmed's 2013 Hugo Award–nominated <em>Throne of the Crescent Moon</em>.</p> <p>She says she was a bit surprised to find genre examples that addressed her academic interests "because there's always the burden of representation for minority writers, a pressure to show the reality of identity." And reality, an accurate understanding of how life is experienced, is historically the domain of literary realist fiction. "But for [Muslim fiction writers] to go completely in the direction of sci-fi—and some of them are hardcore sci-fi writers, thousand-page tomes, trilogies, that kind of thing—embracing what is considered a minority writing tradition is interesting."</p> <p>In conversation she pauses to unpack the term "Muslim fiction," which is being used by scholars to describe a wide range of contemporary writers. Muslim fiction isn't defined by a single ethnic group or nationality, and the term is often used in relation to writers publishing for an Anglophone audience, meaning they are immigrants or of a first generation born in a Western country. These authors and their characters may or may not strongly identify as Muslims.</p> <p>Hashem mentions Southern writer Flannery O'Connor as a comparison. "Christian allegory is very apparent in her fiction, and her own relationship with religion is well-documented," she says. "And to not look at that [aspect] would be to ignore something that's very important to understanding that text. It's not the <em>only</em> way of seeing [O'Connor], but one of many."</p> <p>And, for Hashem, looking at texts through the lens of Muslim fiction reveals recurring themes, such as how these writers are challenging the cultural boundaries that ostensibly separate Muslims from the West. "That's largely because Islam has come under a spotlight since 9/11," Hashem says. "So politics and current events have made it so that writers often use Islam or a character's relationship to religion to investigate their relationship to the world in general."</p> <p>It's not surprising that Muslim writers are exploring the metaphorical freedom that this genre encourages. The 20th century is littered with writers, from Octavia Butler and Angela Carter to Philip K. Dick and Samuel R. Delany, who use fantasy and sci-fi to navigate ideas about gender, politics, race, and sexuality. But where sci-fi writers might allude to Christian spirituality and a secular Western literary tradition, Hashem is seeing Muslim fiction writers explore Islam and its literary culture in their works, such as the comic book series <em>The 99</em>, an allusion to the 99 names or characteristics of God; Helen Wecker's <em>The Golem and the Jinni</em>, Kim Stanley Robinson's <em>The Years of Rice and Salt</em>, and the short-story collection <em>A Mosque Among the Stars</em>.</p> <p>She's still formulating her ideas about this intersection of Muslim fiction and genre writing, but she's interested in how writers of Muslim fiction make connections between traditions and contemporary life.</p> <p>"I found that a lot of writers were turning to sci-fi, speculative fiction, or fantasy, and my theory is that realism as a style is something they're trying to get away from for various reasons," she says, adding that genre is "a way of exploring a rich religious tradition that looks beyond the mundane and tries to relate the spiritual to the mundane. Some of these writers turn to <em>A Thousand and One Nights</em>, especially particular stories in it with characters like the Jinn, that come from a religious tradition. They go here and discover, 'We have this tradition that we can also draw from as writers and gain something in our imagination.'"</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Respect in the ICU <p>Modern intensive care units are loaded with technology, and ICU clinicians frequently are pressed for time. So it can be common for physicians to take the quickest path of least resistance in dealing with ICU patients. For instance, they might look first not at the patient but at the readout on a machine, or they might speak to family and other people in the room as if the patient—who may be harder to engage because of sedation or impairment—were not present and an important part of the conversation.</p> <p>Beginning in 2012, Gail Geller, a professor in the School of Medicine and Berman Institute of Bioethics with a history of addressing ethical questions, and several ethicists at the Berman Institute of Bioethics began examining issues of respect and dignity in ICUs. For example, is not doing enough to include patients in conversations about their care disrespectful? And, in light of studies that show improved outcomes when patients are involved in their own care, might that disrespect do actual harm?</p> <p>Their research was part of Project Emerge, an ongoing study by the Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality at Johns Hopkins Medicine, which has been examining preventable harm in the ICU. Forms of preventable harm include delirium from sedation, ICU-acquired weakness due to inactivity, complications that can arise from being on a ventilator, and loss of respect and dignity. The bioethicists became involved in the study, Geller says, because "bioethics includes clinical or medical ethics, and respect and dignity—and respect is one of the major virtues in clinical practice. It is centrally a moral virtue. If we don't treat other people with respect, there's reinforcement of hierarchy, which leads to injustice. Respect for persons is a big part of medical ethics."</p> <p>The research by Geller et al. included interviews with patients and families, focus groups with health care professionals, direct observation, and analysis of patient and family survey data. Geller, who conducted focus groups and interviews with patients and families, notes the researchers heard common themes: for example, concern by families and patients regarding a preference for checking machines over one-on-one patient contact, and complaints by elderly patients who felt that conversations were directed not at them but at their children, and that this constituted ageism. Nurses observed that restrictions on how many hours residents and attending physicians may work have limited the number of hours that doctors and nurses spend together, and they expressed concern that the decreased communication between the two could adversely affect patient care.</p> <p>"Unintended consequences such as those from overreliance on technology were a common theme," says Geller. She notes that being listened to was a dominant concern among patients and families. "Hearing me, having my voice be heard, having my preferences sought, and not judging me or having preconceived judgments—those were the important points made." Geller is quick to add that doctors and nurses are by no means uncaring. "There are unlikely to be egregious violations of respect and dignity in hospitals. These are good people doing the best they can. That said, the accumulation of small things that go unnoticed is something that can be minimized."</p> <p>Project Emerge is working to redesign ICU workflow, culture, and technology by focusing on clinicians, bioethicists, specialists who study what makes a system more usable and appealing, and patients and their families. One of its experiments includes using tablet applications in Johns Hopkins Hospital and two other hospitals, where patients' families can input personalizing details about the patients—nicknames, hobbies, photos of them living their lives, etc. "The clinicians only see patients at their worst. It has a powerful effect if clinicians can see a picture of the patient playing with their grandchild, or at their wedding, or otherwise in their lives. Then they aren't just 'that diabetic in Bed 7,'" says Geller.</p> <p>One possible plan is to develop a checklist of behavior that patients and families believe will improve ICU care—to be used with the tablet app—as well as a measure for asking clinicians what care is like in their unit, says Geller. "While we're still working out details, a tablet has the potential to be a very efficient way of collecting information about patient experience."</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Jami Attenberg's new novel, Saint Mazie, reads like an unpublished memoir <p>Neighbor, sister, lover—these are the people Jami Attenberg dreamed of chatting with while writing her new novel, <em>Saint Mazie</em> (Grand Central, 2015). The friends and family of Mazie Phillips Gordon, however, are no longer of this earth. She was the proprietor of and ticket taker for the Venice Theater in Manhattan's Bowery neighborhood in the 1920s and '30s, and one of the colorful city characters captured by <em>The New Yorker</em>'s Joseph Mitchell in a 1940 profile simply titled "Mazie" (later collected in the Mitchell anthology <em>Up in the Old Hotel</em>). As seen and heard through Mitchell's discerning eyes and bent ears, she had a frightening voice, kept two tightly rolled copies of the trashy <em>True Romance</em> magazine rubber-banded together to thwack drunks caught snoring during a picture, and worked a day-into-night shift that "would kill most women." She was close friends with two nuns and a monsignor in Lower Manhattan and did everything she could to aid and care for the broke, unemployed, homeless, and discarded men whom hard times had deposited on the Bowery's skid row.</p> <p>"She's a little more rough around the edges in [Mitchell's] essay, and she's really tough," Attenberg, A&S '93, says of Mazie. "But she engages in all these incredibly caring acts. I was struck by her complexity instantly, and there's a lot of mystery that surrounds her, too." Aside from Mitchell's profile (she later discovered he mentions her in an earlier essay, as well), Attenberg dug up Mazie's 1964 <em>New York Times</em> obituary and an article from when she retired from the movie theater. "In that article, she said she was going to write her memoirs—which either never got written or got written and never got published. And I thought, 'I really want to read those memoirs. So why don't I write them?'"</p> <p>And so Attenberg began her fifth novel, <em>Saint Mazie</em>. But about 80 pages into the draft, she hit a wall. This woman who so fascinated her felt distant on the page. "I was frustrated because I didn't have all the information about her that I wanted to have," Attenberg says. "I didn't even have a picture of her. I wished I could ask people about her. I woke up in the middle of the night and wrote down, 'neighbor, sister, lover'—those are the top three people I would like to question about her. And I realized I could just invent them."</p> <p><strong>Also see:</strong> <a href="">'Saint Mazie,' by Jami Attenberg</a> (<em>The New York Times Book Review</em>)</p> <p>That decision led to <em>Saint Mazie</em> becoming the intimate, polyphonous, and engaging novel that it is. Attenberg wrote it as a collection of excerpts from Mazie's unpublished memoir, entries from Mazie's diary from 1907 through 1939, and the memories of people who knew her, sculpting Mazie through this archaeological symphony of voices. Details from early 20th‑­century New York seep into these accounts. In addition to Mitchell's <em>Up in the Old Hotel</em>, Attenberg read John Kasson's <em>Amusing the Million: Coney Island at the Turn of the Century</em>, and consulted Princeton University history Professor Emily Thompson's multimedia website, The Roaring Twenties, which houses recordings from the era. She also read <em>Only Yesterday</em>, a history of the 1920s written by <em>Harper's</em> magazine writer and editor Frederick Lewis Allen and published in 1931, which provided a sense of what people of the '30s remembered of the '20s.</p> <p>She wanted to consume just enough research to prime and focus her imagination. Mazie "felt very modern to me," Attenberg says. "She felt very independent and assertive, she didn't take crap from anybody, and when she saw a problem she just fixed it. And I thought she could be somebody who we need to read about today. I wanted [the book] to feel like you were right there with her in the moment."</p> <p>Aiming for that sense of urgency fits right into Attenberg's novelistic strength. In previous books such as <em>The Melting Season</em> and <em>The Middlesteins</em>, Attenberg showcased a patient, unflinching empathy for her narrators, allowing them to feel life's everyday extremes intensely. It's a generosity she grants to Mazie, who, even at a young age, forms her own ideas about living. Attenberg has Mazie complain about her older sister in her diary: "She doesn't see shimmering cobblestones in the moonlight, she just wonders why the city won't put in another street lamp already. . . . She sees a taxi whisking by and she thinks, what's the hurry? And I think, where's the party?"</p> <p>These imagined thoughts allow Attenberg to construct a sense of how Mazie envisioned herself, sketching an interior life for the Venice Theater figure that no amount of reporting could access. And, in some cases, these private moments assign personal meaning to the casual observations that people used to portray Mazie. "To me she's a hero," Attenberg says. "I really thought of this book as her origin story. She's described in the articles written about her—she wore this floppy hat, dangling bracelets, and carried a walking stick. And I thought, 'That's her Spider-Man mask.' That's her costume. So I wanted to make sure you know where these items came from."</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Our favorite fictional alumni didn't make it to reunion <p>Fresh from Alumni Weekend 2015, we've been basking in the afterglow of seeing so many old friends. But despite attending every event we could—the crab feast, Camp Blue Jay, walking tours, the lacrosse game (Hopkins 16, Michigan 9 — Go Jays!), the Hullabalooza—we missed a few of our favorite Johns Hopkins faces.</p> <p>Open the gallery to read more.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 News good and bad <p>Public health researchers found that seniors who participated for two years in a public school mentoring program did not suffer the shrinkage of the brain's memory centers that is characteristic of age. They also showed improvement on memory tests. <a href="">Click here to learn more.</a></p> <p>A study of people who survived a critical illness and were treated in an intensive care unit found that one in four experienced post-traumatic stress disorder. Researchers noted that this was a PTSD rate comparable to that suffered by combat veterans and rape victims. Existing psychological problems, heavy sedation, and frightening ICU memories appear to increase the risk. <a href="">Click here to learn more.</a></p> <p>Health care studies of U.S. patient outcomes rely on good data from clinical registries. But investigators who assessed 153 American registries found that most had failed to accurately measure and track patient outcomes. The study determined that most registries were underdeveloped and underfunded, and were not using sound methodology. <a href="">Click here to learn more.</a></p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Trader, power, profit: Inside Michael Kwass' biography of 18th-century highwayman Louis Mandrin <p>Any contemporary flâneur should know what a "loosie" is. It's an individual cigarette sold by an enterprising individual who sees profit in buying a pack of 20 smokes and selling each one for a buck on the streets. It's also illegal. Federal and state licenses are required to sell tobacco products, as taxes on each purchase kick something back to the government. New York City police, for instance, suspected Eric Garner of selling loosies when they approached him in July 2014, resulting in the fatal encounter that sparked massive protests over excessive force by police.</p> <p>Pre-rolled, commercially produced cigarette packs entered the U.S. market in the late 19th century, so it's possible that loosies hit the street economy shortly thereafter. Michael Kwass, a Johns Hopkins associate professor of history, found out that this entrepreneurial spirit goes back a little further than that. While researching in the Archives nationales in Paris, Kwass came across a report dated July 27, 1773, involving Jean-Claude Loviat, a concierge for a Paris aristocrat. Loviat also illegally sold tobacco. When three government officials came to crack down on his underground business, his wife grabbed the stash and bolted, with two agents following in hot pursuit. Loviat beat the remaining official bloody and then chased him away with a sword.</p> <p>That's right: The 18th-century French shadow economy rolled hard, and a smuggler by the name of Louis Mandrin had one of the fiercest gangs in the country. From summer 1754 to spring 1755, Mandrin was the most notorious smuggler in France. He was cherished by the common folk for selling tobacco from the Americas and calico from India, goods monopolized by the state that entered the country with high custom taxes that lined government pockets while driving the cost up for the ordinary consumer. By the time Mandrin was executed for his smuggling crimes, he was a folk hero—part Robin Hood, part Che Guevara, part bad motheryouknowwhat—whose exploits inspired French books, songs, television programs, an artisanal beer, and films well into the 20th century, most recently the film <em>Les chants de Mandrin</em> in 2011.</p> <p>In <em>Contraband: Louis Mandrin and the Making of a Global Underground</em> (Harvard University Press, 2014), Kwass uses Mandrin's daring life to bring together and examine three strands of historical scholarship. "Smuggling was a way to put three things together—revolution, consumption, and empire, or globalization more generally—and to build connections between them," Kwass says during an interview in his Homewood office. "And with Louis Mandrin, who was a fascinating figure in so many ways, I realized I could write this broader analytical history around the narra­tive of his life. So it's really kind of a strange book—it's a microhistory embedded in a global history."</p> <p>Kwass speaks with the same clear, conversational intelligence that animates his recently fêted book. In March, <em>Contraband</em> was awarded the biennial Annibel Jenkins Prize by the American Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies, and in April it received the Gilbert Chinard Prize, awarded jointly by the Society for French Historical Studies and the Institut Français d'Amérique. Publisher Éditions Vendémiaire is slated to release the French version in 2016. <em>Johns Hopkins Magazine</em> caught up with Kwass to learn more about Mandrin, the relationship between rebellion and consumerism, and what an 18th-century smuggler might be able to tell us about today's shadow economies.</p> <h4>I like that you call <em>Contraband</em> a strange book, because that's what I liked about it. It's a biography as a political economic history—or a political economy exploration as a biography. Having this really interesting figure to follow makes the bigger questions more engaging to digest. How did you arrive at this approach?</h4> <p>At first I imagined a book like <em>The Return of Martin Guerre</em> by Natalie Davis, which is a brilliant but very short microhistory. As I was researching Mandrin and his life, however, I got into all these problems of contextualization that I needed to fold into the story. And doing it in a paragraph here or there was simply not going to be enough. I had to expand the book.</p> <p>One part of the larger story I wanted to incorporate was rebellion. Historians used to think that France calmed down between the age of Louis XIV and the revolution, but recent research has found that this was not actually the case. Rebellion was very much a part of 18th-century political life, and I wanted Mandrin's story to capture the volatility of popular politics in that period.</p> <p>The other context I wanted to treat was the flipside of rebellion, namely the crack­down on smuggling by the criminal justice system. To repress the illicit economy, the French monarchy completely revamped the judicial system. Traffickers were arrested, tried, and dispatched to labor camps in unprecedented numbers. I discovered that the crackdown on the underground economy led to a massive expansion of the French criminal justice system.</p> <p>Bear in mind that as I was doing my research, I was also reading the newspaper. I was struck by the parallels with the United States' war on drugs and the resulting rise in incarceration rates—we have the highest incarceration rate in the world, which is nothing to be proud of. I heard a distant echo of this in the 18th century and wanted to learn more about it. I found some striking similarities, but also some important differences, between past and present.</p> <h4>Can you talk a bit more about consumption?</h4> <p>I ask because smuggling in some ways exists because there are things people want, and in the book you explore consumption as a way to talk about ordinary people's daily lives on a certain level—if these are things people were buying, what does that tell us about their lives?</p> <p>A number of historians have recently suggested that Europe experienced a consumer revolution in the 18th century. The argument is that ordinary people began to purchase more and more goods on a daily basis—clothing, colonial products, furniture, decorative objects, and so on. All of these goods were booming in this period, as men and women of the middling and to some extent laboring classes experimented with new forms of consumption. It's fascinating to think that ordinary people were engaging with the material world in new ways in the 18th century. Well before the Industrial Revolution, Europeans began buying an unprecedented quantity of goods and profoundly changed their material lives.</p> <h4>And just the evidence of those goods is providing some indication of what people want, what their needs and desires are?</h4> <p>If ordinary people were suddenly acquiring more and more stuff, then the question we must ask is why. Why did they want more goods, and what did these goods mean to them? What did it mean to wear a new style of dress, to sit on chairs instead of stools, to drink coffee from the Americas and tea from China? What I'm trying to figure out is not only what these goods meant culturally to consumers but how they fit into larger social, economic, and political systems. How did the rise of consumption change European society in the 18th century? I'm also interested in the ways in which new patterns of consumption altered the relationship between Europe and the rest of the world, an enormously important question. I was drawn to the topic of smuggling because it allowed me to get at these large-scale historical problems.</p> <h4>How do you go about contextualizing smuggling and the underground economy? You mentioned how we read in the newspapers about criminal activity now, but a couple of centuries back, that's more difficult.</h4> <p>The first thing I did was get a sense of the legal framework of 18th-century trade—I had to see exactly how the state intervened in the economy. To get at the actual underground economy meant going into archives, in Paris but especially in the provinces, where various royal officials were trying to track down smugglers, arrest them, and bring them to court. So I have administrative correspondence between royal officials about smuggling networks, and I also have court records. Essential to the judicial crackdown was the creation of new courts and new modes of policing, which were supposed to be temporary but remained permanently in place—we know what that looks like today as well. These new institutions went after smugglers, especially smugglers organized in gangs, so I could get at the underground economy through judicial records. And once I began digging in, the stories were fascinating—stories of ordinary smugglers and their remarkably creative attempts to circumvent the police and make their way in an illegal trade.</p> <h4>Had you already recognized the relationship between rebellion and illegal trade at that point, or did you come to recognize that once you started looking through the criminal justice archives?</h4> <p>A little bit of both, in part because there was a very good book [<em>La rebellion française. mouvements populaires et conscience sociale : 1661–1789</em>] written by historian Jean Nicolas who underscored the importance of rebellion in this period. So I knew intellectually that there was a rise in rebellion, but when you go into the archives and see the violence—shootouts between officials and ordinary smugglers, communal uprisings, all kinds of resistance to arrest—when you see that in a police report, you realize what was going on in a way that a sociological overview doesn't convey.</p> <p>This violence was far more intense and widespread than I expected it to be, and it really surprised me. I work on these sorts of things, so I shouldn't have been completely surprised, but it really did bring home how pervasive the underground economy was and how violent it could be. Not that everyone was violent, but the growing presence of police triggered all kinds of conflict. In the 18th century, the regulation and taxation of consumer goods was a highly sensitive political issue—smugglers didn't think the state had a right to intervene in what they considered a perfectly legitimate trade. The crown, smugglers, and consumers all had very different notions about what constituted legitimate trade.</p> <h4>That moral world of Mandrin himself seems to have been of particular interest to you. Where did you first start coming across him, and how did you realize he is the figure to wrap this bigger picture around?</h4> <p>I realized that in much of the [scholarly] literature there's a conflation of the image of Mandrin, which was constructed after his death, with his actual life and the practices of his trade. I didn't want to ignore the image making, but I did want to sort those two things out and first learn what he did, who he was, why he got into smuggling, and how he smuggled. Then I could go on to see how the image of Mandrin as a folk hero developed after his death, which was very interesting because there were competing representations of Mandrin, depending on one's political perspective. The process of image making continued through the 19th and into the 20th century, when movies about Mandrin finally appeared. In France, he really is a popular folk hero, a Jesse James–type of figure.</p> <h4>I really liked the chapter in the book that explores Mandrin in 18th-century popular culture. It illuminates your interest in understanding what people consume as a way of getting a grasp of what ordinary people's political ideas might be.</h4> <p>After Mandrin was executed, there was an explosion of popular literature on him. Even people who were illiterate or semiliterate had access to images and songs, so you can get at attitudes fairly low down in the social hierarchy. Through this kaleidoscope of texts, you can see how various ideological representations of Mandrin competed with one another. These texts also provided readers with a way to vicariously experience the violence of the underground economy—like <em>The Sopranos</em> or <em>The Wire</em> does today. Crime literature as we know it was born in the 18th century.</p> <p>I should say one more thing about Mandrin—he was part of a larger smuggling underground, but he improvised on the practices that people usually used to smuggle their goods. Most smugglers in the 18th century hugged the shadows to evade detection. Mandrin started out that way, but he improvised in very public and politicized ways. That's what made him a folk hero; he was doing something dramatically different.</p> <p>He improvised in two steps. The first was to publicize, not hide, what he was doing. He and his gang would storm into towns and establish open public markets in contraband goods. They were armed, they were numerous, and local officials were not inclined to intervene. Of course, the consumers loved it; he sold them large quantities of illegal goods at very low prices. This brought Mandrin a lot of attention as newspapers picked up the story.</p> <p>But his second improvisation was what really amazed me. And that is what we might call his forced sales. His gang would ride up to a state tobacco warehouse—the state had a monopoly on tobacco and sold it at very high prices—and Mandrin would basically say, "I'm going to make you an offer you can't refuse." Under the threat of violence, he offered to sell his illegal contraband tobacco to state officials, who agreed to buy it at whatever price he demanded. These were coercive exchanges to be sure, but they were exchanges nonetheless. Mandrin did not think of himself as a thief. He thought these exchanges were, to some extent, morally legitimate. In fact, after such transactions, Mandrin wrote out receipts and left them with state retailers.</p> <p>I found many of these receipts in the archives. Mandrin expected state tobacco sellers to pass the receipts up the ladder to the rich financiers at the top of the royal tobacco monopoly, so that the financiers would have to cover the costs of his forced exchanges. This suggests that Mandrin had a fairly sophisticated sense of the political and social system in which he was embedded. He was aiming his forced sales at financiers who were widely detested in popular culture. Newspapers and pamphleteers then highlighted Mandrin's subversive commercial practices, electrifying the public and turning the gang leader into a poster boy for the underground.</p> <h4>I like that you use the word "improvisation" because it speaks to his sophisticated understanding of what the tobacco infrastructure is and how to attack and subvert it at the same time.</h4> <p>He was very subversive, very sophisticated, but also very violent, and I didn't want to hide that fact. His violence was usually aimed at agents of the tobacco monopoly, which gave it a quasi-moral or legitimate dimension, but it was still violence. He killed many guards of the monopoly.</p> <h4>Do you have any favorite Mandrin stories, either because of their derring-do or because they illustrate points that you find really rich?</h4> <p>There are a couple of interesting anecdotes that bring out what I call the "moral economy" in his smuggling. In one case, a gang member killed an innocent bystander in a shootout, and the gang held a trial to determine his guilt or innocence. He was found not guilty, but [he] was instructed to cover the costs of the victim's funeral.</p> <p>So the gang was not just riding into town and shooting the place up and then riding out. Its members had certain moral expectations of themselves and their behavior. And this came out in another case where one member of the gang sold some calico cloth—the other article they smuggled—at an extremely high price to an ordinary consumer. Mandrin intervened and forced the gang member to lower his price so that it was in line with the going price on the black market.</p> <p>Stories like this illuminate the complex moral world Mandrin inhabited. I wanted to explore that world, to uncover its ambiguities, and to show how it was connected to a larger universe of 18th-century underground trade.</p> <h4>Throughout your book, I was reminded of Peter Andreas' <em>Smuggler Nation</em>, which tells the history of the United States through its illegal trade. You both point out that what a state chooses to prohibit has political and economic interests behind it. That's important to remember because it's very convenient to think that the war on drugs was strictly a response to drug trafficking of the 1960s and not in a tradition of power saying who gets to profit off certain things.</h4> <p>When people think of globalization, they often think of free trade, the decline of national borders, and the beneficial effects of an integrated world market. But we know there are problems with globalization, such as the deterioration of labor markets. I wanted to show that the problems of globalization extended as well to underground economies and violence. Sure, today the world economy is becoming increasingly integrated, but states are still powerful and they intervene in the global economy in any number of ways. They regulate and tax certain goods, and that creates opportunities for people to profit from illicit trade.</p> <p>We're aware of this because we read about our own war on drugs, but this is an old problem. Over the course of the early modern period, intercontinental trade rapidly developed among Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas, but all this trade was highly regulated at the same time. European rulers imposed import taxes, bans, and regulations to structure overseas trade so that it would benefit themselves, their cronies, and their realms, but this also created opportunities for ordinary people to make money in underground economies. Paradoxically, these laws ended up stimulating vast illicit economies, which constituted a kind of dark side of globalization. So there are interesting parallels between today and the 18th century.</p> <h4>Understanding this period you're looking at, what does that give us to think about as we consider our own shadow economies?</h4> <p>In some ways, the so-called neoliberal state seems to be retreating from regulating economy and society, but there are other ways in which that state is intervening heavily, most obviously with respect to narcotics and the penal repression that stems from enforcing prohibitions. So the parallels are striking: Prohibitions generate trafficking and criminality, and criminality leads to the expansion of the criminal justice system.</p> <h4>The state intervening to benefit its self-interest.</h4> <p>Yes, and I'll get to self-interest in a second because I think that's an interesting idea. But I think the ways in which my case diverges from current understandings of the war on drugs is even more interesting than the parallels. The first type of divergence has to do with race, because race played a part then and it plays a part today.</p> <p>In the 18th century, race played a major role in the sphere of production because many of these smuggled goods, particularly tobacco, were produced by enslaved men and women of African descent. Today, race also plays a role but more conspicuously in the repression of illicit trade. Judicial repression not only falls heavily on the poor, as it did in the 18th century, but also disproportionately on African-Americans, who have clearly borne the brunt of the war on drugs. It is disturbing to think that descendants of slaves who were forced to grow a profitable psychoactive product, like tobacco, in the 18th century are now disproportionately pursued for trading in and consuming psychoactive products. It just goes to show you how deeply ingrained racism is in the history of the United States.</p> <p>The other interesting difference between past and present is the state's own vision of what it is doing. In the 18th century, states did not attempt to moralize the issue of illicit trade. The French crown did not demonize the goods that circulated in the clandestine economy. What strikes me about the war on drugs today is the moral force behind state intervention. Since the war on drugs began in the 1970s, narcotics have been portrayed as corrupting the moral fiber of the nation—and this of course is not unrelated to the racialized forms of repression I just spoke of.</p> <h4>It's interesting to hear that said so plainly, the morality of the war on drugs, because it's such a given. No matter where you are on that chain of drugs in America—growing, distribution, sales, user—it's bad all along the continuum. There's something wrong with you for participating in this economy.</h4> <p>And what's so interesting about the movement to liberalize the marijuana trade in various states is that we're seeing a moral shift reflected at the level of law, not just an economic shift. We don't know where liberalization will lead, but it's very interesting to watch. I know from my own research that this is not going to destroy underground trade because there's still going to be significant price differentials between regulated marijuana and unregulated marijuana. But what is most fascinating to observe is how the relationship between law, popular morality, and the economy is evolving in our own day, just as it was evolving in the 18th century.</p> <p><strong>Bret McCabe, A&S '94, is the magazine's senior writer.</strong></p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 A look at the one-of-a-kind documents that are the specialty of autograph dealer Stuart Lutz. <p>Stuart Lutz was 21 years old and pondering law school, or perhaps a doctorate in American history, when he fell in love with a different line of work. Just graduated from Johns Hopkins, he was working for Kaller Historical Documents in Asbury Park, New Jersey, when a package arrived. He opened it to find two things. One was a small clay inkwell used by Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Courthouse when Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia and effectively ended the Civil War. The other was the only known letter written by Abraham Lincoln in which he discusses a second presidential term. Lutz held the two items, thought about who had held them 130 years before, and silently said goodbye to the idea of law school.</p> <p>Lutz, A&S '92, now operates Stuart Lutz Historic Documents in Short Hills, New Jersey. He deals in documents, letters, and manuscripts handwritten or at least hand-signed by Abraham Lincoln, W.H. Auden, Aaron Burr, Andrew Carnegie, Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Thomas Edison, Amelia Earhart, Mikhail Kalashnikov, Robert E. Lee, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and people you are less likely to have heard of such as Charles A. Magnuson, who lived in Alaska in the early 1900s, and a 19th-century Dakota Territory schoolteacher named Ella P. Starkweather, who wrote to a friend, "Pupils, thirty-two in number, a few would be rendered much more attractive by a vigorous application of soap suds but I will try just a mild discourse on cleanliness."</p> <p>He finds documents for his business at antiquarian paper shows, book fairs, and estate auctions. He finds items on eBay. Sometimes other collectors call, seeking to sell what they have amassed. He has appeared many times on the History channel television program <em>Pawn Stars</em> and he has a website, so now and then, Lutz says, he gets this sort of call: "My uncle died, and he had three Jackie Kennedy letters. Do you want to buy them?"</p> <p>Ninety percent of his business is in U.S. history, by his estimate, with the rest mostly Irish and British history. He has sold documents written in 1655 and a letter signed by Barack Obama. Over the last 15 years, Lutz has done business with every Ivy League university, the U.S. Naval Academy, and private collectors, some of them very rich, almost all of them men. One collector specializes in handwritten eyewitness accounts of historical incidents. Often Lutz comes across fascinating items that he hates to part with, but says, "You can't fall in love with it if you want to move it."</p> <p>Knowledge of history is a major asset in his business. Lutz reads a lot of historiography and likes traveling to historical sites. John Tyler's house, for example. When you think "U.S. president," John Tyler probably does not spring to mind. He was a slaveholding Virginian elected vice president on the Whig ticket in 1840, and the Tyler in William Henry Harrison's presidential campaign slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler, Too." When the unfortunate Harrison won the election but died after only 32 days in the Oval Office, Tyler became president and was on occasion referred to as His Accidency. He served a single, undistinguished term before giving way to James K. Polk. In the mid-1990s, Lutz was sorting through a box of documents in New England. Sifting the paper, he found an invitation, priced at $35, inviting the "Honorable Mr. Tyler" to a Potomac River cruise on the USS <em>Princeton</em>. Because he had been to Tyler's house, Lutz knew enough about the 10th president to know he had accepted that invitation and been aboard the U.S. Navy warship when one of its cannons exploded, killing four and wounding 20. Tyler was below deck and escaped harm. (His Accidency indeed.) Recognizing what he held in his hand, Lutz contacted descendants of the Honorable Mr. Tyler and sold them the invitation for $2,000. His profit provided seed money for his company, which he founded in 2000.</p> <p>Ten years ago, Lutz was looking through a case of documents priced at $50 each. He noticed a three-page letter dated 1852 and datelined "20 miles from Ft. Laramie." In 1852, the only thing 20 miles from Ft. Laramie was the Oregon Trail, and Lutz knew he had something worth much more than 50 bucks. Later he sold the letter to the University of California, Berkeley, for $1,500. "I always wondered how it got in that case," he says.</p> <p>People who prosper in his business learn to identify handwriting. A woman once brought Lutz a framed letter by James Madison in which Madison discusses wine. When Lutz removed the letter from the frame, he found on the back a bit of docketing—that is, a notation that cataloged the letter. The docketing was not signed, but Lutz knew the distinctive hand—Thomas Jefferson. Sometimes his knowledge tells him who didn't sign something. He pulls out an antique edition of Homer's <em>Iliad</em>, the Alexander Pope translation, and points to the inside front cover signed by George Washington. Except it's not Washington's signature. The first president signed with a vigorous hand, and whoever forged his signature here wrote so slowly in making the long tail of the last N, his hand shook in a most un-Washingtonian way. Next Lutz shows a fake Henry Ford signature, the slow, careful creep of the forger betrayed by how much ink spread through the paper's fibers.</p> <p>Lutz deliberately buys some forgeries, either to take them off the market or add them to his personal collection of fakes. The most commonly forged signature is Lincoln's; Lutz owns two. He once had to break the news to a bookseller that the Nathan Hale signature in a book was not by Nathan Hale. He opens a binder to show a photo of Gerald Ford, signed by the 38th U.S. president and complete with a statement of authenticity issued by a prior seller. Lutz pulls out a tool of his trade, a piece of clear acetate bearing the various machine-generated autopen signatures used by Ford's office on documents that did not require his personal attention. One of the signatures on the acetate lines up perfectly with the autograph on the photo. "No one can sign their name exactly the same way twice," Lutz says. Certificate of authenticity notwithstanding, the Ford photo was signed by a mechanized proxy.</p> <p>As more and more documents exist only in digital incorporeality, will signatures or hand-written pages lose their significance? "I don't think so," Lutz says. "To me, there are two great things about letters and signatures. First, I know that Abraham Lincoln or Susan B. Anthony once held the same paper that I am now holding. Second, if it took George Washington 60 minutes to handwrite a letter, then I own one hour of a great person's life."</p> <p>Lots of historical papers remain to be found, and Lutz never knows what will turn up next. Years ago, someone showed another autograph dealer the handwritten speech delivered by Malcolm X the night he was assassinated; the dealer did not buy it, and whoever held those pages vanished, along with the copy of the speech. A complete draft of George Washington's inaugural speech, different from the address he actually delivered, is known to have existed at one time but has never been found intact; individual leaves turn up from time to time, but key pages are missing. Documents from the U.S. Supreme Court sessions of 1790 are scarce, as is anything signed by Herman Melville, Emily Dickinson, or Edgar Allan Poe.</p> <p>The most expensive autograph in the United States, Lutz says, is anything signed by Button Gwinnett. The name may sound like that of the Gwinnett family dog or a socialite on the Upper East Side, but Button Gwinnett penned his name on the Declaration of Independence and only about 50 documents are known to bear his signature. The last one to appear at auction, dated July 12, 1776, sold for more than $700,000. So if you come across that unlikely moniker in a box of letters from your great-grandmother's attic, it just might be your big day. Give Lutz a call.</p> <p><strong>Dale Keiger, A&S '11 (MLA), is the magazine's editor.</strong></p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Other nations could learn from Germany's efforts to reconcile after WWII <p>In early March, German Chancellor Angela Merkel visited Japan, her first trip to the country in seven years. She met with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to discuss climate change, terrorism, and free trade ahead of this summer's G-7 economic summit. She mostly followed the anticipated script, including innocuous photo ops at stopovers like the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation. But to the surprise of some and probable irritation of her host, no less than four times during the two-day visit, Merkel brought up how her country rehabilitated its international reputation after World War II by reconciling with Nazi victims and acknowledging the atrocities Germany had committed. At an event in Tokyo organized by the left-leaning newspaper <em>Asahi Shimbun</em>, Merkel referred to a 1985 speech by then West German president Richard von Weizsäcker, who called Germany's wartime defeat a "day of liberation." She added, "We Germans will never forget the hand of reconciliation that was extended to us after all the suffering that our country had brought to Europe and the world."</p> <p>Her repeated references to German reconciliation, many contend, were not-so-veiled jabs at Japan's unwillingness to acknowledge the horrors it had committed during the war. Merkel even pointedly addressed the taboo subject of Japan's "comfort women," young girls of Korean, Chinese, Filipino, and Dutch descent forced into sex slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army during the war. The timing and content of her remarks were notable, as Prime Minister Abe plans to give an address on August 15 to mark the 70th anniversary of the end of World War II in the Pacific, amid rising speculation that he may water down Japan's past apologies for its aggression in Asia.</p> <p>In the midst of faltering European economies, Germany has thrived. It has grown to become the fourth-largest economy in the world. Yet at the end of World War II, a mere 70 years ago, the country lay in ruins. Much of its infrastructure, including major ports and railroad hubs, had been heavily bombed by Allied air forces; the city of Dresden had been utterly destroyed. More than 7 million Germans lost their lives during the war; the population of Cologne dropped from 750,000 to 32,000. And morally, the country was beyond bankrupt as the gruesome details of the Nazis' systematic murder of 11 million Jews, Poles, Russians, Roma, homosexuals, and others were exposed. Yet Germany pulled itself out of this deep chasm to become one of the most influential and trusted nations. Many view the country as the lynchpin of the European Union. In a 2014 BBC World Service poll, Germany ranked first in popularity, with 60 percent of the international community rating it positively. How had the shadow of Hitler been overcome?</p> <p>Lily Gardner Feldman has a lot to say about that. She is the author of <em>Germany's Foreign Policy of Reconciliation: From Enmity to Amity</em> (Rowman & Littlefield, 2012) and a fellow at the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies, a Johns Hopkins–affiliated think tank based in Washington, D.C., housed at the Brookings Institution. She is also director of the institute's Society, Culture and Politics Program. Since its creation in 1983, AICGS has focused on the unfolding German political and cultural narrative and how that impacts Europe and the rest of the world. The British-born Gardner Feldman grew up in London but spent several formative years living and working in Germany. After earning her master's in European studies from the University of Reading, a research university in Berkshire, England, she focused on Germany at the Royal Institute of International Affairs' Chatham House, an independent policy institute. She moved to the United States to pursue a doctorate in political science at MIT, where she wrote her dissertation on German-Israeli relations. "At the time, nothing had been written on this topic," she says. "There were two books that were highly anecdotal, but no scholarly work on the German-Israeli relationship. I happened to be at the right place at the right time."</p> <blockquote> <p>In a 2014 BBC World Service poll, Germany ranked first in popularity, with 60 percent of the international community rating it positively.</p> </blockquote> <p>German reconciliation would become the focus of Gardner Feldman's work for both professional and personal reasons. She says she was drawn to its culture at an early age. She studied the language under a grammar school teacher who had been a refugee from the Nazis. Her father had fought in the 8th Army during the war in North Africa and Italy, but according to Gardner Feldman he held no animosity toward Germany. At 17, she entered an exchange program and lived in West Germany while a German student lived in her home. "My father had no problem with this, and this was in the 1960s," she says. "That was atypical because politically and in popular culture there was still very much this wariness about Germany in parts of Europe. In fact, Margaret Thatcher was very reluctant about German unification in 1989." <div class='magazine-section-break'></div> For Germany, the road to prosperity began with trust, Gardner Feldman says. Germany realized that if it were to rejoin the international community, it could not run from its crimes but had to confront them. But reconciliation and atonement were not immediately embraced, says Hanns Maull, one of Germany's leading academic foreign policy analysts and an adjunct professor of strategic studies at SAIS Europe. At the end of the war, a form of "collective trauma" initially fell upon the German citizenry, Maull says. "There was a sense of catastrophe—physical and material. Germany was destroyed. Partitioned. And then there was this moral catastrophe. German society had to face and recognize what had just happened. But this rather quickly subsided and people had to deal with their daily lives. So this trauma and feeling of guilt was suppressed." What people see today as Germany's success in coping with its past really started in the late 1950s and took hold in the 1960s, he says. The catalytic event was the Frankfurt Auschwitz trials that took place from 1963 to 1965. These were the first major Nazi war crime cases pursued not by the victorious Allies but by the Germans. People who had served at the concentration camp were brought to justice. But even then, many Germans cast blame on the destroyed Third Reich, as if that were somehow separate from Germany.</p> <p>After Germany's defeat, the four principal allies—the United States, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and France—occupied the German state. During this time, the U.S. Office of Military Government in Germany, under the leadership of General Lucius D. Clay, commissioned surveys of Germans about the recent past. The surveys found competing attitudes that cut through society. Nearly a third of those questioned persisted in anti- democratic and anti-Semitic sentiments; two-thirds denied even partial responsibility for the rise of anti-Semitism. Yet a substantial majority admitted that the German population as a whole should bear some blame or guilt for Nazi crimes. "Germany was then deeply divided on the interpretation of that responsibility," Feldman says. While the surveys found a view of guilt, there was a persistent negative perception of Jews, Gardner Feldman says; strikingly, one-third of those surveyed clung to the belief of the inferiority of Jews and the justice of discrimination, and 83 percent believed that Germany's crimes were only on the same level as other nations'.</p> <p>Gardner Feldman describes this period as the "big silence." A population surrounded by rubble and occupation troops coped by burying the past. Some, however, accepted blame. Segments of German society involved themselves in organizations committed to penitence, notably various faith-based groups that reached out to France and the newly established Israel. This grassroots reconciliation effort was embraced and championed by Konrad Adenauer, the leader of the Christian Democratic Union party and the first postwar chancellor of West Germany. Adenauer was a deeply religious man who reportedly read the Bible each night. The personal importance of his faith was part of why he was influenced by faith-based groups, according to Thomas Berger, professor of international relations at Boston University and author of <em>War, Guilt, and World Politics After World War II</em> (Cambridge University Press, 2012). (Berger taught for seven years in the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences' Department of Political Science.)</p> <p>Adenauer realized that to become a productive and prosperous nation, West Germany must forge close relations with old enemies. (East Germany, dominated by the Soviet Union, showed little inclination toward reconciliation. Says Maull, "East Germany saw itself as representing a different Germany and therefore refused to assume any responsibility for what had happened during the Nazi regime. West Germany, on the other hand, accepted—legally and politically—that it was the successor state to previous Germanys.") In 1951, at the behest of his Israeli counterparts, Adenauer began negotiations with Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion and Israeli Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett for a reparations agreement. In addressing his country's parliament to petition for the financial arrangement, Adenauer said Germany had a debt to pay: "Unspeakable crimes have been committed in the name of the German people, calling for moral and material indemnity." His government was prepared to offer a "solution of the material indemnity problem, thus easing the way to the spiritual settlement of infinite suffering."</p> <p>Gardner Feldman says that Adenauer faced some resistance and skepticism. "There was not wholesale approval of his policies, indicated by the fact that he had to rely on the Social Democratic Party opposition to get ratification of any reparations agreement, and his own finance minister was opposed to it," she says. "There was concern about Germany's ability to pay, and how [an agreement with Israel] might damage relations with the Arab world." But Adenauer pressed on, driven morally by guilt and the need for reconciliation, and pragmatic calculations about what West Germany had to do to become respected again. Berger adds that West Germany was also responding to pressure from NATO and a potent Jewish lobby in the United States.</p> <p><img src="" /></p> <p>From the beginning of this "special relationship" between West Germany and Israel, there existed a gargantuan awkwardness. Israel did not authorize its passports for use in Germany. Many Jews to this day refuse to step on German soil or have any business with Germans. Menachem Begin, later Israel's prime minister, led opposition to the reparation negotiations. In Tel Aviv there were huge demonstrations that showed a deeply divided Israel. Both sides dug in and wielded moral arguments, Gardner Feldman says. "Ben-Gurion said it would be immoral to have let the Germans kill, maim, and dispose of us and not try to get something from them. Begin argued it was immoral to deal with these awful people."</p> <p>Israel was in a difficult position. The fledgling state was an economic disaster. The director of the finance ministry, David Horowitz, was scouring the world for funds. He concluded that the only place Israel could get financial help was from West Germany, and that was when Israel began to make claims for compensation through reparations. To devise a formula, they did not base reparations on what had been lost because such a toll, they felt, could never be calculated. Instead they formulated the cost of resettling Holocaust survivors in Israel. On September 10, 1952, a reparations agreement between Israel and West Germany was signed in Luxembourg. The talks had been conducted in English and there were no handshakes or smiling faces at the signing of the pact, under which West Germany was to pay Israel for integrating Holocaust survivors and agreed to devise German domestic legislation to pay compensation and restitution to individual Jews. The first reparations payments to the Israeli state as goods in kind began in 1953 and ended in 1965; payments to individuals continue to this day. By the end of 2008, Germany had provided 66 billion euros in all forms of compensation, with the largest share going to Israel. Some Israelis said it was akin to taking blood money, but the agreement brought in German goods and infrastructure that built and stabilized the Israeli economy. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div> Gardner Feldman, who has been researching German reconciliation for more than 40 years, says nearly every conceivable dimension of political and social relations was engaged in this bilateral connection between West Germany and Israel. At the same time, Germany was developing a similar relationship with France through cultural institutions such as the Franco-German Youth Office. In January 1963, French President Charles de Gaulle and Chancellor Adenauer signed the Élysée Treaty that established a new foundation for relations and ended centuries of rivalry.</p> <p>In the 1960s, West Germany under Willy Brandt, who first was foreign minister and then chancellor, reached out to the East and made steps toward reconciliation with Poland in particular. Brandt said Germany had to build with Poland what it had built with France. On a cold wet day in Warsaw on December 7, 1970, Brandt laid a wreath at the memorial of the Jewish ghetto. The lasting image of that day was a photo taken when Brandt fell to his knees in front of the memorial and remained completely still for half a minute on the wet stone floor. That same day, Brandt signed the Treaty of Warsaw, which committed Germany and Poland to nonviolence and accepted the existing border—the Oder-Neisse line, imposed on Germany by the Allies at the 1945 Potsdam Conference. Here was a man who had resisted Hitler and owned no direct responsibility for Nazi atrocities, but took on the full weight of their actions. Though West Germany had gone to great lengths to express contrition for the transgressions of the Nazis, German political leaders long avoided the concept of collective guilt and underlined that Germans had to atone for crimes committed by the Third Reich, not the nation. Brandt, however, was the first German head of government to adopt a clear stance that "no German is free of history."</p> <blockquote> <p>Germany has used sites of Nazi crimes, such as concentration camps, as learning and teaching tools and visible reminders of atrocities.</p> </blockquote> <p>Germany's ongoing relationship with Israel is unique, Gardner Feldman says, but one can see similar reconciliatory themes, approaches, and patterns through Germany's relations with its other former enemies. In her book, she argues that the "cornerstone, perhaps the very definition, of German foreign policy after World War II became, progressively, reconciliation." Germany had to reconcile with the countries and people it had attacked, occupied, and slaughtered during a brutal six years of war and destruction. Gardner Feldman examined all German chancellors from Adenauer to Merkel and found a common strain: an imperative to repay a deep moral debt.</p> <p>Germany has never singled out England and the Netherlands the way it did France, Israel, Poland, and Czechoslovakia. Gardner Feldman speculates, "Maybe [Germany] looked at the most egregious examples or countries that could bring it the most benefit?" <div class='magazine-section-break'></div> Germany's Axis partner Japan has done little in terms of reconciliation. The Japanese government insists its own reparations issue was settled by the 1965 Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea, and the Joint Communiqué of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China in 1972. Japan has rejected claims from individual Korean and Chinese victims. Examples of apologies include the 1993 Kono Statement, by Japanese chief cabinet secretary Yohei Kono, that acknowledged the Japanese Imperial Army had forced women to work in military brothels during World War II. This statement led to the creation, a year later, of the Asian Women's Fund, which provided aid and support to women who were forced into prostitution. It was dissolved in March 2007. Gardner Feldman also mentions two statements by Japanese prime ministers: one in 1995 by Tomiichi Murayama on the "need to learn from history"; the other in 2005 from Junichiro Koizumi on the 60th anniversary of the end of the war, "that Japan must never again take the path to war, reflecting that the peace and prosperity we enjoy today are founded on the ultimate sacrifices of those who lost their lives for the war against their will," and that Japan, through its colonial rule and aggression, "had caused tremendous damage and suffering to the people of many countries, particularly to those of Asian nations."</p> <p>In an April 2014 edition of <em>Foreign Policy</em> magazine, Gardner Feldman wrote in an article titled "Reconciliation Means Having to Say You're Sorry" that these apologies, while a good start, "stand as islands in a sea of denial, not as markers in a consistent effort to face the past. None was followed by robust, concrete action." And in 2013, Prime Minister Abe questioned whether the term "aggression" should even be used to describe Japan's wartime behavior.</p> <p>Some right-wing politicians have called for Tokyo to revise or rescind the Kono and Murayama apologies. Gardner Feldman observes, "Whereas the Germans from 1949 until today are still saying, 'Sorry' and, 'This is our burden from the past,' you have a Japan whose actions contradict the apologies they have uttered." She cites a 2014 visit by Japanese government officials to Tokyo's Yasukuni Shrine, a memorial to Japanese war dead that critics say honors war criminals and the country's past militarism. The shrine is particularly anathema to China, which was occupied by Japan before and during World War II, and Korea, which was colonized by Japan from 1910 to 1945. Various government ministers paid their respects at the shrine, and Prime Minister Abe sent a small masakaki tree. "These kinds of acts [make the] South Koreans and the Chinese go crazy because it glorifies what these people did," she says. Germany, meanwhile, has used sites of Nazi crimes, such as concentration camps, as learning and teaching tools and visible representations of atrocities. In Berlin, there are countless physical reminders such as words engraved in cobblestones that mark the arrests of Jews or where families lived before they were pushed out by the Third Reich.</p> <p>While Japan has largely forgone reconciliation, Germany has used its policy to claim a moral high ground and become a trusted power. Hanns Maull, the foreign policy analyst, says that one reason Germany has become so trusted is the lengths it has gone to distance itself from its days as an aggressive power. "Whereas you might say power is central to politics, power is taboo to Germany today," Maull says. "People don't like to talk about it because the abuse of power was so dramatic and has deep implications for the collective conscience. Military power, in particular, is taboo. Germany debates the role of force and has a very cautious approach. Germans are willing, under certain conditions, to use military force but never to use it alone and only when there's no choice but military intervention." That trust from its neighbors, Maull says, made German reunification possible. "And Germany's relationship with Israel has been a cornerstone of that trust." <div class='magazine-section-break'></div> Is there a foreseeable end to reconciliation? Gardner Feldman says no. "It's an ongoing process and it never ends," she says. "That's why today you have young Germans with absolutely no relationship to what happened in World War II willing to volunteer in countries seen as victims of the Nazis." Maull agrees. "Every year, what reconciliation means might change, but it's open-ended. Every new generation has to deal with this." Gardner Feldman notes that there are still commissions monitoring the language used in German textbooks, unfinished compensation issues, and attempts to reclaim art seized by the Nazis.</p> <p>Gardner Feldman says other nations might learn from this. She argues that Germany could help China and South Korea settle decades-long disputes with Japan over the ownership of islands in the East China Sea and Sea of Japan, as well as show the way for Japan to make amends. Germany can point to lessons it has learned. For example, reconciliation doesn't need to lead to perfect peace and harmony, as Germany and Israel certainly don't see eye to eye on everything. And reparations can be paid long after the underlying crimes were committed—it's never too late.</p> <p>The key is that reconciliation requires goodwill on both sides. In the case of Japan, its refusal to acknowledge wrongdoing stunts its dialogue with China and South Korea. "The Japanese standard response is, 'We are not like Germany,'" Gardner Feldman says. "They say, 'We didn't do the things Germany did.' But when they've said that to me at the foreign ministry, I say, OK, set aside the Holocaust—you were still an aggressive and occupying power, like Germany. But they say the comparison is not useful."</p> <p>Foreign policy experts point out that the onus is not all on Japan. Its victims need to be magnanimous and open to reconciliation, as well. "The point Merkel tried to make in Japan, I feel, is that the Germans are very grateful that the hands of reconciliation were extended to them," Gardner Feldman says. "The victims took the initiative. She basically said, 'I'm not here to give tips to the Japanese and others. But I can talk about what Germany did.'"</p> <p><strong>Greg Rienzi, A&S '02 (MA), is the magazine's contributing writer.</strong></p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Nursing is hard. Unaddressed ethical issues make it even harder. <p>The couple looked over at what they had been told was their stillborn baby. But as the baby, born at 22 weeks, lay on the warmer, the parents could see that the heart was still beating.</p> <p>Doctors knew the baby had no chance of surviving, so they hadn't told the parents that their child still had a heartbeat. The physicians didn't want to upset them. But the couple saw, and the father spoke up. A nurse swaddled the baby and handed it to the mother. "The mom felt, 'Oh my gosh, those were precious moments that were lost. I could have been holding the baby that whole time,'" says Naomi Cross, a registered nurse who at the time was new in her role as a perinatal bereavement coordinator for Johns Hopkins Hospital. She was called in to talk with the couple about what had occurred. "I had to go back to the doctor and say, 'We can no longer make decisions [about what to tell parents] because we are afraid to hurt their feelings or offend them. We need to give them all information.'" In this case, that meant saying, "Your baby's heart is still beating. Would you like to hold him?"</p> <p>Cross had witnessed a gray area—a situation where doctor, nurse, patient, and family may not see eye to eye, not because one is right and everyone else is wrong but because there is no cut-and-dried answer. Here, the question was how to treat the parents of a newborn baby who barely has signs of life. Cross felt that an infant should be regarded much the same as an elderly hospice patient: The patient's death may be imminent, but his vitals should still be recorded, the family should be kept informed on his status, and loved ones should be given resources to cope with the loss. And she started to see that discussions about ethics were not a regular part of the patient care routine. Talking about the loss of a baby is a taboo, she says, and doing so makes people uncomfortable. Cross felt that this patient, like others, had not been given the proper standard of care.</p> <blockquote> <p>Either the nurse is unclear about the right thing to do, or the nurse can see what should be done but cannot do it.</p> </blockquote> <p>As perinatal bereavement coordinator and bedside nurse for the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Cross worked to change her department. She talked to administrators about providing grief resources, to benefit not only patients but also the hospital's bottom line; she showed her higher-ups scholarly articles that indicated candor about how difficult situations would not cost the hospital revenue by dissuading people from returning for future care. She educated colleagues about Maryland statutes on recording health care data even when a patient's death is imminent. She started hosting bereavement training for incoming nurses and residents. It wasn't easy, and she was often met with opposition. "Some days, I felt like I was banging my head against a wall," she says. "In the beginning, I was cussed at. I was cussed at by professionals—by doctors and nurses. I think that I had to really develop a tough skin, and I had to come at it from a very rational standpoint, and, sadly, from a monetary standpoint." It was an uphill battle, but she says she slowly started seeing progress throughout her department—nurses being sent to her with questions, or colleagues sharing information she had taught them.</p> <p>In January, after several years in this role, Cross transferred to the pediatric emergency department. "I was burned out, I really was," she says. "I felt like I needed my own support group for bereavement coordinators." <div class='magazine-section-break'></div> For nurses, such situations are not rare. Every day in every department of every health care organization, nurses grapple with ethical challenges. All too often, in the daily grind of nursing, ethics are not discussed. But when they are ignored, nurses burn out. Sometimes they leave their jobs. And with the demand for capable nurses constantly increasing, experts say that has huge implications for the future of health care.</p> <p>The ethical dilemmas faced by nurses include everything from speaking up about how a staffing shortage impacts quality of care to deciding how to allocate scarce resources like donor organs or blood. They encompass birth complications and end-of-life issues and just about everything in between. The matter becomes even more complicated when you factor in that each nurse has his or her own personal set of ethics shaped by upbringing, personal history, religion, race, and so on. The unifying elements, according to the American Nurses Association's Martha Turner, are that either the nurse is unclear about the right thing to do, or the nurse can see what should be done but cannot do it (because, for example, hospital policy forbids it).</p> <p>While ethics impacts every health care worker, experts say nurses face unique challenges. They often spend more time with patients, so they are more likely to understand what the patient wants and how the family feels. Nurses are the ones who most often see patients and family members struggling to make crucial, sometimes excruciating decisions. They're often the ones who know that the patient or the family is not comfortable with current treatment. "The difference for nurses is we have prolonged engagement with patients and families," explains Jennifer Wenzel, an associate professor in the School of Nursing with joint appointments in the School of Medicine and the Kimmel Cancer Center. "We experience with them the frustrations. We're very closely connected experientially, and that's different. It puts nurses in the thick of things, ethically. And then when you add in that we all have our own ethics and beliefs that may collide with the patient's or the organization's or other caregivers' set of ethics, it's complex and it's messy."</p> <p>"Nurses, like everyone else, have personal values," adds Cynda Rushton, a Johns Hopkins professor of bioethics with joint appointments in the School of Nursing and the Berman Institute of Bioethics. "And sometimes those values are in conflict with what their patient may be asking them to do or participate in. Nurses have to find a way to reconcile their own moral values with the obligations of their profession."</p> <p>Cross' experience in the delivery room was seen through her own unique lens—when she was 14, she was raped. She awoke one morning feeling nauseous and suffered a miscarriage in bed. She says she didn't know how to cope with the loss and experienced symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. That experience has followed her through life and was a big part of her decision to become a champion for girls and women dealing with loss. While she chose to put herself in this situation, many nurses don't get to choose. They are more often in a support role and don't get to elect whom they care for, even if that comes into conflict with their values. "Nurses aren't often in the position where they can opt out of providing care for patients," Rushton says. "Physicians, on the other hand, often have a contractual relationship with patients. They can make decisions on whether they're going to provide services to them, whereas, for nurses, that option is quite limited in general. You generally get assigned based on what patients need, not what you want, not what you prefer. And what that really highlights is that we take care of everybody, regardless of their diagnosis, their gender, their culture, their socioeconomic status, their race. We take care of everybody."</p> <p>Rushton says the nation is at a tipping point in health care. With more than 3 million nurses in the United States—the largest segment of the health care workforce—any conversation about impending challenges of caring for aging baby boomers or the advancement of technology is deeply tied to nurses and can lead to new ethical challenges and moral distress. Just because new technology can keep a patient alive, does that mean it's the right thing to do? How best to allocate limited resources to a growing patient population? How can hospitals continue to deliver quality care for ever more patients when the workforce is not growing at the pace needed to keep up?</p> <p>Ethics can be the elephant in the room. Nobody wants to talk about it, but it's not going anywhere. People aren't always comfortable talking about the deeply held personal values that shape their personal sense of ethics. They fear being judged, or confronting people who see a situation as categorically right or wrong instead of shaded by individual ethical considerations. It's a gray area in a profession that values black and white, that values precision and decisiveness. Is the bone broken? Does the patient have an infection? Has the tumor spread? What is the dosage? What is the prescribed treatment? "Coming up with the right answer is a huge part of medicine, and when you can't feel confident that you came up with the right answer, you might think, 'I just would rather not get into that territory,'" Rushton says.</p> <p>Moreover, nurses may be too busy to stop and think about some of their frustrations as actually involving ethical dilemmas. "Often, we think about ethics as separate, that thing we do when everything else is done," Rushton says. "In fact, ethics is part of everything we do. It's embedded in our choices, in our behavior, in our character, in how we do our work every day. When you think about ethics in that way, it's important for the foundation of nursing to be grounded in ethical values so that we've got a firm foundation to operate from."</p> <blockquote> <p>"Ethics is part of everything we do. It's embedded in our choices, in our behavior, in our character, in how we do our work every day." –Cynda Rushton</p> </blockquote> <p>"Some of these situations are serious enough that we see nurses leaving the profession," Wenzel says. "They can escalate to the point where people feel like, 'I can't do this work anymore.' I'm not saying they stand up in the middle of it and leave right there, but it can be upsetting to them to the point where they say, 'I'm not happy about this and I don't want to put myself in this situation again.'" Says Rushton, "I've had many opportunities to choose other professions, and I wouldn't choose anything else. And I see nurses who start their careers, and they have that same passion. And then when I see them two years later, they are depleted and burned out, and to me there's something wrong with a system that does not engage that passion and commitment. It's a loss. It's a big loss to the profession, and also to the people we try to serve. It does no one any good to expend the time and energy to train nurses and then have them leave the profession in less than two years. That is not a good return on investment."</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div> R ushton is a leading force in nursing ethics. As a professor of clinical ethics as well as a professor of nursing and pediatrics, her personal mission is to give nurses a voice and to see conversations about ethics happen on a daily basis as a part of routine health care, instead of being an afterthought or occurring only when things reach a boiling point. She's been working on it for more than 30 years and feels like she's making headway.</p> <p>Rushton speaks with an enthusiasm and optimism not always associated with conversations about death, moral distress, and professional burnout. "I tend to focus on the glass half full," she says as she describes programs and initiatives at Johns Hopkins that seek to prompt conversations about ethics, particularly among nurses. She starts by describing the Johns Hopkins Hospital Ethics Committee and Consultation Service, of which she is a co-chair. The committee provides recommendations to health care workers, patients, and their families on how to proceed in cases where ethics are a factor. Rushton says nurses are a big part of its consultations. She gives the example of an elderly man with cancer who now was going to die. He had undergone multiple operations on his abdomen, which had left him with a host of complications. The man and his family knew that death was imminent, but they requested that he continue to receive donor blood until he passed away. The medical team, including the nurses, understood the family's wishes but faced a dilemma: Donor blood was in limited supply, and a transfusion now would not help the patient. So the ethics committee was called in. They spoke with the family and conveyed that unlimited transfusions in this case were ethically unjustified.</p> <p>Rushton says she wants such conversations to happen before there is an ethical crisis or confrontation. She and her colleagues have begun to lead ethics rounds, during which they meet with the health care team, patients, and families to normalize conversations about ethics. To the health care team: How do you feel, ethically speaking, about the current course of care? Have you discussed the ethics with the family? To family members: If the patient could speak right now, what would she want us to do? Has she expressed any preferences in the past? The rounds are almost like educational icebreakers—they rotate among departments as a way to jump-start conversations about ethics. Rushton says her hope is that even after she leaves the department, health care teams across the hospital will continue to think and talk about ethics in everyday practice.</p> <p>While many hospitals have codes of conduct or guidelines to ensure quality and safety, fewer give the same attention to ethics. The Johns Hopkins Hospital's <a href=""><em>Code of Ethics in Patient Care</em> </a>articulates the hospital's values—respect for cultural traditions, patient autonomy, confidentiality, and so on—and how those values should apply to decisions on everything from mandatory flu vaccinations to allocating scarce supplies, staff, and space. Individual departments are taking steps to do what they can, as well. The Kimmel Cancer Center, for example, has initiatives in place to support nurses as they deal with the moral distress that comes with treating long-term cancer patients, according to Sharon Krumm, administrator and director of nursing for the center and an associate professor at the School of Nursing and School of Medicine. The center has a staff chaplain to discuss dilemmas with nurses, and she feels her team is empowered to speak up. They are also aware of the available options for consultation. "I think it's really an expectation that people speak up and speak out," she says.</p> <p>The School of Nursing has a dedicated ethics and theory course for master's students, which provides tools for identifying and addressing ethical issues for practicing nurses. The course, co-taught by Wenzel and Rushton, has students role-play scenarios, draft position papers, and engage in debates. Rushton gives an example scenario: You're the nurse who thinks the patient's pain is not being managed properly, but the doctor says he will not increase the dosage. What do you say? How do you react? Are you willing to bypass the doctor and go up the chain of command?</p> <p>Students who go through the course often may know how they feel about a scenario but have trouble verbalizing why they feel that way, Wenzel says. By having discussions and debates, students learn not only about their own values but how to empathize with those on the other side of the argument. "If you don't understand the rationale behind something, it's easy for you to become more entrenched in your position, and even to feel very emotional about situations and areas of disagreement," Wenzel says. "I think if you can understand the other person's position and understand that there's a rationale for it, it doesn't necessarily mean you will agree with them, but it at least forms that basis for understanding where they're coming from, for meaningful dialogue, and, hopefully, for some resolution."</p> <p>Everyone admits there is always more that can be done. In many departments, despite efforts to spur conversations about ethics, those discussions still don't happen as often as they should. There is too little time, money, and staffing. When nurses get busy, ethics may go on the back burner. For Krumm the biggest problem is staffing. When budget cuts strike, nurses are hit hard, as nursing is the Kimmel Center's largest expense. That can lead to overworked and overwhelmed nurses who feel they can't give the best care. "It sort of sends a message of devaluing what the nurse does. If your numbers are cut, you can't sit and hold a patient's hand while they're working through some emotional issues because you've got two IVs to hang," she says. "The tasks begin to overwhelm you, and it's very dissatisfying if you cannot provide the level of emotional care and comfort that the patients are asking for or need." Rushton says, "We are ahead in some areas and have room for improvement in others. There's always more that we could be doing. It's a matter of resources, honestly."</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div> The path to nursing was more of a squiggle than a straight line for Brian Wise, Nurs '14. After getting a bachelor's degree in philosophy, Wise enrolled in seminary school. He was halfway to a master's degree in divinity when, as he describes it, "I stopped believing in God as a literal thing." Part of what drew him to theology had been the ability to help people struggling with moral decisions. "Ethics and moral systems are the <em>why</em> we do what we do," he says. "That's so important in life."</p> <p>He sees nursing as similar to theology that way. After graduating from the School of Nursing last year, he took a position in Johns Hopkins Hospital's pediatric ICU. Nurses play a balancing role, he says: learning what's best for the patient, what the family wants, and what the health care team has planned. Especially in the Hopkins PICU, where the sickest of sick kids end up, he says nurses play that role against a backdrop of ever-advancing technology that can keep these kids' hearts pumping, perhaps when that's not the best thing. "We haven't been able to keep up with how quickly technology has been advancing," he says. "Is it OK for these kids to be kept alive indefinitely with questionable quality of life, questionable consciousness? Or are we just doing that because that's what the family wants. And is that OK?"</p> <p>He cites a recent case. The patient was a child with a complex medical history and a poor prognosis. The patient's doctors and family were talking about more invasive procedures that would be painful and hard on the child. Children are resilient, Wise says, and they can surprise with how well they respond to a procedure. But there's always a chance that the doctor will go forward with a painful, invasive procedure only to have the child die anyway. Wise was asked by the parents what he would do were the roles reversed. "To have to help somebody make a decision like that, that's a decision that I would never want to have to make for my kids," he says. "I've got three kids of my own, and I can't imagine what it would be like to put yourself in the family's shoes. When they asked me what I would do, it was hard to even know how to respond to that. But we did end up having a good conversation about the patient as a person, about what clues the child had been giving as to whether they could survive something like this. We're in the middle of families trying to wrestle with decisions that nobody ever wants to deal with, and I don't know that there is always a right answer. It's so complicated and murky."</p> <p>Wise says issues like this are constantly discussed, but usually it's in the break room. "Very rarely do any of those conversations result in anything constructive. It's more like, 'We're in this bad situation, and our job is to keep these kids alive, even if we don't think that's the best thing for them.' "</p> <p>Nurses need to be trained and intent on acknowledging and discussing the ethical challenges they face, he says. With his background in philosophy and theology, as well as ethics training in nursing school, he thinks he's pretty good about taking a step back and articulating what ethical issues are at play and why they're bothering him. But he knows he's in the minority. Wise is working with Rushton and others on a moral distress research project in the PICU, where he's asking doctors, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other health care workers what brings on moral distress and how they deal with it. "Almost nobody we talked to had any training, no matter what their background was," he says. PICUs generally have a high turnover rate, he notes, and new employees are understandably more concerned with learning the mechanics of the job—where equipment is, who does what, and so on—than with conversations about ethics. But it's necessary.</p> <p>There's a nationwide shortage of nursing faculty, and only a small percentage of those instructors have been educated in ethics, Rushton says. Many of the instructors who do lead ethics courses have no formal background. "Many places would say that ethics is integrated in their curriculum," Rushton says, "which means that it can be pretty invisible." The problem is then exacerbated by a lack of continuing education opportunities focused on ethics. Seldom will you hear about formal ethics training for working nurses, or even brown-bag lunches to discuss the topic. "There's a huge need for nurses who are in practice to continue to work on those issues in continuing education. There are just huge gaps everywhere," Rushton says.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div> T o Rushton, all the forces at play in the past year have finally started coming together so that real change could be effected in policy, education, and research. "Now people are going, 'Oh, OK, yeah. That makes sense,'" she says. The American Nurses Association spent much of the past year preparing to release the first revision since 2001 to its <a href=""><em>Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements</em></a>, which serves as guidelines for ethical practice for all nurses. Released in January, the updates don't change the foundation of the document but include "small changes in perspective and focus," says ANA's Martha Turner, the co-lead writer for the project. The changes are intended to reflect the evolution of the health care landscape and technology. Among the material changes, Turner says, is the addition of terms like "social media" and "genetics." The ANA celebrated the release by dubbing 2015 "The Year of Ethics." "This Year of Ethics is a really good kick-starter for getting the conversation going because so much of it is raising nurses' awareness," Turner says. "I think it happens much more so than it used to, but nurses still have a difficult time with many of these issues."</p> <p>Just months before, Rushton made her own major contribution. In August 2014, 50 nursing leaders came together in Baltimore for the first-ever National Nursing Ethics Summit, conceived by Rushton and sponsored by the School of Nursing and the Berman Institute. She says Johns Hopkins is the perfect forum for discussions of nursing ethics, given its history. Isabel Hampton Robb, who in 1893 wrote <em>Nursing: Its Principles and Practice</em>, widely regarded as the first nursing ethics textbook in the United States, was the first superintendent for nurses at Johns Hopkins. "This is a continuation of a long tradition here," Rushton says.</p> <blockquote> <p>"It should not be a heroic act to say, 'Look, here's an unsafe situation,' or, 'Here's a situation where we are really compromising our ethical values.'" –Cynda Rushton</p> </blockquote> <p>The summit helped break down boundaries that sometimes exist between nursing organizations, she says, to unite the voices of educational organizations, professional nursing nonprofits, policymakers, and others with a stake in the profession. Its resulting <a href=""><em>Blueprint for 21st Century Nursing Ethics</em></a> laid out, step-by-step, what could be done to ensure that nurses are prepared through education and supported in clinical practice. The blueprint also addressed the need to track the outcomes of these efforts through additional research. "One of the things that happened at the summit, particularly for nurses who have focused their work on ethics, was kind of a moment of realizing we've arrived at a place where things are actually happening," Rushton says. "The fact that we're all together suggests that there's possibility, that things can be different, and that our voices are actually being heard in a different way.</p> <p>"It happened in an amazing way. The revision of the Code of Ethics and the summit, all of that sort of coalesced together to create a kind of momentum that has never happened before. It's not just one little voice out here making noise. Now we've got a collective voice."</p> <p>One of the most exciting things to come out of the summit, she says, is engagement with student leaders. After the summit, a group of Hopkins nursing students worked to get the National Student Nurses' Association's House of Delegates to pass a resolution supporting the vision laid out in the summit's blueprint. "Our resolution was about signing a pledge that states how you plan on personally committing to upholding ethics," says Heather Reinig, the Hopkins nursing student who was the main author of the resolution. "It's trying to promote a personal commitment and leadership in ethics among nursing students." She points out that today's nursing students will be tomorrow's nurses, and it's important to prepare them to think about ethics as they prepare to go into direct patient care. In April, Rushton was invited to serve as keynote speaker for the association's national convention. She says it's thrilling to see students getting involved, leading the charge for the next generation of nurses.</p> <p>Ever the optimist, Rushton thinks it's possible to mobilize the collective voice of nurses to participate in conversations with policymakers, hospital administration, physicians organizations, and insurance companies to create a culture where ethical practice is valued and encouraged. Above all, she says, "we want to get to a place where it's safe for nurses to speak up and speak out. We want it to be normative that people are expected to speak out. It should not be a heroic act to say, 'Look, here's an unsafe situation,' or, 'Here's a situation where we are really compromising our ethical values.' And to me, that would be a huge step, if every nurse could be prepared to speak up and speak out with confidence, and they could actually advocate for their patients and themselves in a more forthright, clear way. That would be a good outcome."</p> <p><strong>Jeanette Der Bedrosian is the magazine's assistant editor.</strong></p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 A simple invitation <p>Nigerian novelist Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie writes about her great-grandmother toward the end of this thoughtful short read. As Adichie heard from family stories, her forebear was a woman who ran away from the home of the man to whom she'd been promised in order to wed the man she chose, who spoke up for herself, and who protested the state of life defined for her by others. And Adichie, A&S '04 (MFA), adds that while "feminist" wasn't a word her great-grandmother knew, "that doesn't mean she wasn't one."</p> <p>This down-to-earth reasoning gives <em>We Should All Be Feminists</em> an unflappable power. This 60-something page essay is an adaptation of the TEDx talk Adichie gave in 2012 that went viral as a video. A portion of the speech was excerpted by Beyoncé and included in the song "Flawless" for her eponymous 2013 album. <em>Feminists</em> was first published digitally in 2014, reissued in February as a trade paperback by Anchor Books, and has bounced in and out of the lower end of <em>The New York Times</em>' paperback nonfiction best-seller list since March, alongside such books as Tina Fey's <em>Bossypants</em> and Rebecca Skloot's <em>The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks</em>.</p> <p><em>Feminists</em>' understated populism jibes with those two books' mainstream appeal. Adichie writes about her experiences as an African woman to address the ordinary challenges women face—a peer wearing a wedding ring to a conference so that men take her more seriously, being assumed to be a sex worker because she's entering a hotel alone, how a woman is supposed to be ashamed of her body and sexuality—in anecdotal aperçus that accrue a pragmatic momentum. She points out how culture authorizes and sustains gender roles, noting how that culture can be a cage for men as well, how maleness recuses men from thinking about gender in the first place, and that's part of the problem.</p> <p>That Adichie argues all of this in a potent conversational voice allows her to avoid the loaded language of contemporary identity politics without being unaware of how those discussions use "feminist" as a defect, turning debate into reactionary cul-de-sacs. Instead, Adichie's conversational, at times conspiratorial tone—she rhetorically asks if women traditionally do all the cooking because of a cooking gene, then remembers most esteemed "chefs" are men—enables her to turn the urgent advice of the book's title into a simple and common sense invitation to join the human race.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Garden with lobsters <p>Elizabeth Archibald, who teaches humanities classes at Peabody Institute, whimsically started her <em>Ask the Past</em> blog seeking how-to advice from medieval or early modern European texts she found in the George Peabody Library. Now in analog format—old illustrations on one page, excerpted copy on the facing page—it's easier to recognize how <em>Past</em> (Hachette, 2015) is both comical and illuminating. In addition to finding out how to garden with lobsters, know if death is imminent, eat politely, and increase lust, Archibald provides a snapshot into the skills deemed necessary to be considered a civilized, useful person. This book-from-blog volume may actually redeem the fact that <em>Stuff White People Like</em> is a thing that can be found in bookstores.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Lens crafters <p>Lay scientist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek and artist Johannes Vermeer changed the way we see and understand the world, the former via his work with microscopes, the latter with his lens and camera obscura experiments that informed how he represented light on canvas. In the Dutch city of Delft in the 1600s, they lived mere blocks apart, though they never knew each other. And in <em>Eye of the Beholder</em> (W.W. Norton & Co., 2015), St. John's University philosophy professor Laura Snyder, A&S '92 (MA), '96 (PhD), treats their parallel paths as an investigation of the changing understanding of visual cognition in the 17th century, through a dual biography that acts like a meditation on sight and reads like an entertaining historical drama.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Home base <p>Under the umbrella of the university's 21st Century Cities Initiative, researchers have launched a set of projects examining Baltimore in relation to the unrest following Freddie Gray's death. "We're trying to reimagine what a research university can do in the face of a crisis like this," says Kathryn Edin, a sociologist in the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences who was recently named director of the initiative.</p> <p>Known in shorthand as 21CC, the initiative started last winter as a reboot of the former Institute of the American City. The interdisciplinary effort aims to look broadly at revitalizing American cities such as Pittsburgh, Detroit, and Chicago, Edin says, applying both local and global solutions. Recent events "have sharpened our focus on Baltimore," Edin says. "Even though the events were extraordinarily tragic, we are incredibly fortunate to be in the position to deploy our skills in this way."</p> <p>The new research will not be of the slow-burning variety that's often seen in academia, but a "rapid response" that should produce tangible results by this summer in the form of papers and briefs. Dozens of student and faculty researchers are involved— and more are needed—for eight designated projects.</p> <p>"Team Scanner" is looking at scans of police channels in Baltimore from late April, focusing on calls reporting officers in distress. "Team School" will investigate the dynamics at Frederick Douglass High School, which was thrust into the spotlight because of its central location amid the riots and the activity of some of its students. "Team CGE" (referencing the Center for Government Excellence) will assist other teams in gathering information on the Mondawmin Mall transportation hub, assessing the significance of disruptions to bus service there two weeks ago. And "Team Social Media" will examine Twitter activity surrounding the call to "purge" that reportedly played a role in inciting violence. (The term alludes to the 2013 horror movie <em>The Purge</em>, where all crime is legal for one day.)</p> <p>One project will involve "old-fashioned ethnographic research" at Mondawmin Mall and surrounding areas. "We'll send field workers to have informal interactions and in-depth conversations with kids," Edin says. "How are these kids feeling about how they've been portrayed in the media? How are things changing on the ground?" Two other projects will examine housing issues in Baltimore. The goal, Edin says, is "to figure out how to stem the blight and create neighborhood conditions more conducive to well-being and health." Finally, another study will look at families living in extreme poverty in Baltimore, using surveys and interviews "to capture the texture of the lives of these folks—how they survive economically, and how kids' health and development may be affected," Edin says. She notes that 15 undergraduate interns at Johns Hopkins have already been hired to assist with the research.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 The results are in <p>From March to May, the competition was fierce on the Idea Lab—Johns Hopkins' new crowdsourcing website—as members of the university community cast more than 4,400 votes for what they saw as the most inspired of 34 proposals. Now, four winners can celebrate knowing their ideas will receive funding.</p> <p>Modeled after the Applied Physics Laboratory's Ignition Grants, the Idea Lab was launched earlier this year with two initiatives: the Ten by Twenty Challenge, to fund projects with the theme of One University, and the existing Diversity Innovation Grants.</p> <p>A total of 557 people voted for the top proposal in the Ten by Twenty Challenge, which offered up to $20,000. With the funding, graduate students from Biomedical Engineering will invite members of different Johns Hopkins departments to form a team, identify a medical need, propose a solution, and promote that solution with an online campaign. An online voting process will determine which ideas receive funding.</p> <p>The Hopkins Graduate Student Consulting Club proposed the second Ten by Twenty Challenge winner. That group will create a lecture program for graduate students and postdocs to learn practical business skills.</p> <p>As for the Diversity Innovation Grant, the top vote recipient is a project to jump-start conversations around gender equity in science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines. A second grant will support the creation of a "human library," which will identify individuals with diverse life experiences to be available to tell their stories in person when requested.</p> <p>In the coming months, additional projects from the lab will be chosen to receive funding. University leaders are discussing new challenges for the coming academic year. The Idea Lab is online at</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Global affairs <p>Three-term New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg is providing initial funding for a new international policy institute at Johns Hopkins named in honor of his longtime friend, former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.</p> <p>The new Henry A. Kissinger Institute for Global Affairs will be located at the university's Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, D.C. It will specialize in long-term strategic analysis and in the disciplined application of historical lessons to contemporary international problems. The institute, which will include at least 10 distinguished scholars in international affairs, will also serve as a focal point for scholarship and public debate on international affairs and policy.</p> <p>"There is a need for an approach in international relations education that transcends the narrow confines of short-run policymaking," says President Ronald J. Daniels. "The Kissinger Institute is created to address that need. The rigorous theoretical research at the institute will instill a deep sense of intellectual inquiry in the minds of all those who engage with the subjects at hand, including the most vexing international issues of our time."</p> <p>Bloomberg, a Johns Hopkins alumnus and former chairman of its board of trustees, is committing funds to establish the institute. These funds will be matched by other donors and by Johns Hopkins, which also will dedicate two of its Bloomberg Distinguished Professorships to the Kissinger Institute. In total, at least 10 new endowed chairs will be established at the institute.</p> <p>"The challenges of today's world demand fresh thinking and new ideas based on historical perception, knowledge, and sound analysis," says Kissinger, who served as national security adviser and secretary of state in the Nixon and Ford administrations. "The School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins is uniquely positioned to tackle such challenges with a combination of contextual studies in economics, religion, and regional and cultural history with practical diplomacy."</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Adventure is out there <p>Addressing a crowd of graduating students, Pixar co-founder Ed Catmull emphasized the necessity of failure as part of a creative life. He urged graduates to think of failure not as a necessary evil but as a "necessary consequence of doing something new—and you should always do something new." Catmull, president of Walt Disney and Pixar Animation Studios, was the featured speaker at this year's universitywide commencement ceremony, held May 21.</p> <p>He spoke after remarks from Johns Hopkins University President Ronald J. Daniels, who brought Hopkins' setting in the city of Baltimore to the forefront. Daniels called upon graduates who remain in Baltimore to bring "better health, better education, and more jobs to our most challenged neighborhoods."</p> <p>More than 7,000 students received their degrees at the ceremony.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Post-season play <p>Johns Hopkins athletics ended the spring season with a rush of success. On the first weekend in May, no fewer than six teams won conference championships. Men's and women's track and field, men's and women's tennis, and baseball all won Centennial Conference crowns, and men's lacrosse won the first ever Big 10 lacrosse championship.</p> <p>In post-season play, baseball went deep into the NCAA Mid-Atlantic regional tournament before losing to Alvernia University, 8-1. Men's tennis advanced to the NCAA national quarterfinals before losing to Claremont-Mudd-Scripps, while women's tennis earned a spot in the NCAA Sweet Sixteen before bowing out to Amherst. The biggest success was men's lacrosse, which at press time had reeled off seven straight wins to earn a spot in the NCAA Final Four. In the first two rounds of the national tournament, the Jays overwhelmed Virginia, 19-7, then won a thriller against Syracuse, 16-15.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Closer collaboration <p>From Jeff and Shari Aronson's perspective as volunteer leaders at Johns Hopkins University, bringing SAIS and the Krieger School of Arts and Sciences together in closer collaboration would enhance both schools' capacities to develop new solutions for world problems and train new generations of global experts.</p> <p>All that was missing was a structure to encourage that collaboration. So they established the $10 million Aronson Center for International Studies.</p> <p>"At the faculty level, the Aronson Center will bring together a greater variety of experts to collaborate on thorny problems in international studies and make the world a more just and peaceful place," says Jeff Aronson, A&S '80, chair of the university's board of trustees. "At the student level, the center will provide even greater opportunities for young people to learn from and work with the very best thinkers—and doers—in the field."</p> <p>At present, the primary connection between the two schools is that Krieger international studies majors have the option to pursue a five-year BA/MA degree through SAIS. The Aronson gift will provide three components to greatly increase collaboration between the two schools. First, the Aronson Distinguished Professorship will support a highly regarded scholar to guide cross-disciplinary efforts, oversee appropriate projects at both schools, and pursue an academic focus on topics related to the Middle East.</p> <p>The second component, the Aronson Professorship, will support an expert in international relations and comparative politics, international economics and social development, or conflict resolution, who will partner with the distinguished professor to develop innovative approaches to international relations. Both new Aronson Center professors will teach one undergraduate course per semester.</p> <p>Finally, the Aronson Center Endowed Fund will provide money for things like experiential learning trips, symposia, shared scholarly projects, and other endeavors that benefit undergraduates.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Abbreviated <p>Abbreviated Edited by Ann Stiller</p> <p>Four cross-disciplinary scholars have joined the ranks of Bloomberg Distinguished Professors. <strong>Arturo Casadevall</strong>, a microbiologist and immunologist, has appointments in the <strong>Bloomberg School of Public Health</strong> and the <strong>School of Medicine</strong>. Physician scientist and biomedical informatician <strong>Christopher Chute</strong> joins the faculty of the schools of <strong>Medicine</strong>, <strong>Nursing</strong>, and <strong>Public Health</strong>. Computational biologist <strong>Steven Salzberg</strong> has appointments in the schools of <strong>Medicine</strong>, <strong>Engineering</strong>, and <strong>Public Health</strong>. <strong>Alexander Szalay</strong>, an astrophysicist and computer scientist, is on the faculties of the <strong>Krieger School of Arts and Sciences</strong> and the <strong>Whiting School of Engineering</strong>.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>Kay Redfield Jamison</strong>, a psychiatry professor in the <strong>School of Medicine</strong> and a leading authority on bipolar illness, has been elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She is among 197 new members, who include novelist Tom Wolfe, Pulitzer Prize winner Holland Cotter, and Nike co-founder Philip Knight. Her election brings to 52 the number of current Hopkins faculty who are members of AAAS. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>Aravinda Chakravarti</strong>, a professor of medicine, pediatrics, molecular biology and genetics, and biostatistics in the schools of <strong>Medicine</strong> and <strong>Public Health</strong>, and <strong>Donald Geman</strong>, a professor of applied mathematics and statistics in the <strong>Whiting School</strong>, have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences. They are among 84 new members of the honorary society elected in April. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p>Peabody faculty artist <strong>John Walker</strong> presented master classes and lectures at the Shanghai Conservatory of Music in May, marking the first occasion that an American organist has taught there. In addition to representing Peabody, Walker went to Shanghai as national president of the American Guild of Organists. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>Stamatios "Tom" Krimigis</strong>, head emeritus of the Space Department at the <strong>Applied Physics Laboratory</strong>, received the 2015 Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Trophy for Lifetime Achievement, the museum's highest honor. Established in 1985, the award recognizes outstanding achievements in the fields of aerospace science and technology and their history. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>Sahar Soleimanifard</strong> is one of 30 recipients of the Paul & Daisy Soros Fellowships for New Americans, the premier graduate fellowship for immigrants to America. She completed a PhD at the <strong>Whiting School</strong> and is now working toward her MD at the <strong>School of Medicine</strong>. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p>Two <strong>Krieger School</strong> professors— <strong>Lawrence Principe</strong>, in History of Science and Technology, and <strong>Niloofar Haeri</strong>, chair of Anthropology—are among the 175 recipients of Guggenheim Fellowships awarded this year. Guggenheim Fellows are appointed on the basis of impressive achievement in the past and exceptional promise for future accomplishment.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>Quenton Bubb</strong>, a junior biophysics major in the <strong>Krieger School</strong>, has won a UNCF/Merck Undergraduate Science Research Award, given annually to 15 college juniors. Sponsored by the United Negro College Fund and Merck & Co., the scholarships aim to increase the number of minority students preparing for careers in science and engineering. Bubb plans to pursue medical and doctoral degrees in molecular biophysics.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>Alfred Sommer</strong>, a University Distinguished Service Professor and former dean of the <strong>Bloomberg School of Public Health</strong>, was named the inaugural recipient of the Welch-Rose Award for Distinguished Service to Academic Public Health, established by the Association of Schools & Programs of Public Health.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>Jeanne Alhusen</strong>, an assistant professor in Community-Public Health in the <strong>School of Nursing</strong>, received the Southern Nursing Research Society's Early Science Investigator Award. Her research focuses on the biological and psychological foundations of maternal attachments and their impact on childhood outcomes.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p>Cardiothoracic and heart-lung transplant surgeon <strong>Robert S.D. Higgins</strong> was appointed the new surgeon-in-chief of Johns Hopkins Medicine, the William Stewart Halsted Professor of Surgery, and director of the Department of Surgery at the <strong>School of Medicine</strong>. Higgins, previously at the Ohio State University, joins Johns Hopkins on July 1.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>Eric Puchner</strong>, an assistant professor in the Writing Seminars, has won the 2015 Jeannette Haien Ballard Writer's Prize, a $25,000 annual award given to "a young writer of proven excellence in poetry or prose." Puchner's first novel, <em>Model Home</em>, was published in 2010 by Scribner.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>Samuel M. Alaish</strong>, pediatric surgeon and associate professor in the <strong>School of Medicine</strong>, has joined the Johns Hopkins Children's Center to co-lead its newly formed Center for Intestinal Rehab and Cure Using Science. The center is dedicated to the study and care of children with short bowel syndrome.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>James Guest</strong>, an associate professor in the Department of Civil Engineering, is the recipient of the American Society of Civil Engineers' 2015 EMI Leonardo da Vinci Award. This award recognizes a young investigator whose contributions have the promise to define new directions in the theory and application of engineering mechanics.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p>In the <em>U.S. News & World Report</em> "Best Graduate Schools" rankings published in March, the <strong>Bloomberg School of Public Health</strong> remained in the No. 1 spot for the 21st consecutive year, and the <strong>School of Education</strong> held No. 1 for the second year. Biomedical Engineering, a joint program of the schools of <strong>Engineering</strong> and <strong>Medicine</strong>, was also ranked first in the nation. The <strong>School of Nursing</strong>'s master's degree programs tied for second, and the School of Medicine tied for third. The <strong>Whiting School of Engineering</strong> jumped two spots to a tie at 25th place.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>K.T. Ramesh</strong>, a professor in Mechanical Engineering and director of the <strong>Hopkins Extreme Materials Institute</strong>, received the Society for Experimental Mechanics' W.M. Murray Medal, SEM's highest honor. He was selected for this recognition for his "major impact on our understanding of nanomaterials and dynamic failure processes."</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>Chia-Ling Chien</strong>, a professor of physics in the <strong>Krieger School</strong>, has been awarded the 2015 IUPAP Magnetism Award and Néel Medal, given every three years to a scientist who has made extraordinary contributions to the field of magnetism. It is the highest honor bestowed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics Commission on Magnetism.</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <p><strong>SOURCE</strong>, a community outreach center for Johns Hopkins in East Baltimore, celebrated its 10th anniversary in April with an event at Living Classrooms Foundation in Federal Hill. The Student Outreach Resource Center oversees 100 partnerships with community-based organizations whose interests range from health care and housing to the environment and refugees.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Basic training <p>For as long as he can remember, Leo Bell, A&S '71, was determined to become an officer in the U.S. Army. It was an ambitious goal for an African-American boy growing up in a rural, racially segregated town. But Bell equated the Army with seeing the world and advancing as far as his personality, skill, and tenacity could take him.</p> <p>Bell spent much of the 1950s and '60s in Weimar, Texas, a small town that was, like the rest of the state, racially divided. He returned to his birthplace of Houston for high school, where he joined the Army Junior ROTC. He was the Class of 1967 valedictorian and a National Merit Scholarship finalist, achievements that opened doors for him. Soon, he was inundated with brochures from colleges throughout the country. He happened to be watching a special that was part of the <em>Bell Laboratory Science Series</em> made for AT&T Corporation in the 1960s when, during a commercial break, a Bell Labs engineer mentioned Johns Hopkins. "I went back and pulled that brochure, and I said, 'This is in Baltimore.' And the first thing I thought of was Johnny Unitas and Raymond Berry," he says, referring to the Baltimore Colts.</p> <p>He was accepted by Johns Hopkins on an ROTC scholarship and partial support from the university. One of few African-Americans and Texans in the Class of 1971, Bell sees his experience at Johns Hopkins as life-changing—and the reason he included a significant gift in his will to establish a scholarship fund for future students. "It was Johns Hopkins that prepared me to do the things that I consider successful," he says. "I always wanted to be an Army officer, but I think I was a better and more effective Army officer because of my experiences at Johns Hopkins."</p> <p>Bell appreciated the small classes, which allowed him to interact with professors, and the opportunity to take higher-level courses alongside graduate students. As he worked toward his degree in psychology, he developed skills he would use later as an Army officer in the military. "My units were some of the best ones out there, and twice we set records," he says. "That was because of the motivational techniques that I learned at Johns Hopkins—how you lead people to do difficult things that they wouldn't necessarily want to do."</p> <p>The day before he graduated, Bell was commissioned in Shaffer Hall as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army Field Artillery. The next three years took him to Fort Benning, Georgia, for airborne school; officer training in Fort Sill, Oklahoma; assigned duty in Fort Carson, Colorado; and on to his initial tour in South Korea as a first lieutenant. Though it had been more than 10 years since the end of the Korean War, the U.S. continued to have a presence there, and it was still dangerous, especially in the demilitarized zone between North and South Korea. U.S. troops patrolling the area were routinely shot at by North Korean soldiers. "My first ducking from enemy fire came then," says Bell. "And no one at home knew we were still risking life and limb. At least four infantry soldiers died during my rotations."</p> <p>Back in the States, Bell earned a master's degree in education in 1981 and continued his military career. He eventually changed from Field Artillery to the Medical Service Corps and was appointed the Army surgeon general's representative in the Dallas area.</p> <p>Bell retired from the Army in 1993 as a lieutenant colonel with many military honors, including the Legion of Merit Medal, three Army Commendation Medals, and two Meritorious Service Medals. He worked for the U.S. Post Office for the next several years, fully retiring in 2010. He stayed connected with Johns Hopkins, giving regularly, becoming a member of the Alumni Association's Cerulean Society (recognizing those who give $1,000 or more to the Alumni Association's endowment), and volunteering to interview prospective Johns Hopkins students from the Dallas area, where he lives with his wife, Elaine. When he wanted to contribute in a more meaningful way, he decided on a gift through his estate. "Giving through a will or revocable trust is an attractive alternative for those who are considering a gift or would like to increase their support to Johns Hopkins," explains Richard Letocha, a Johns Hopkins gift-planning adviser. "Their gifts cost nothing in their lifetimes, and they have the peace of mind that they can modify their plans if their circumstances change." Bell's gift will establish an endowed scholarship fund for Krieger School students from Bell's home state.</p> <p>For Bell, it is important to ensure that future generations of Johns Hopkins students benefit from their university experience as much as he did. "I hope that some Texans, who may know very little about what's going on anyplace other than the community they are from, will have the opportunity to see that there is a wider world out there," he says. "And there are opportunities at Hopkins for them to learn, grow, prosper, and achieve."</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Venture capitalist Dave McClure plays the odds when picking his next investment <p>Dave McClure, Engr '88, admits he wasn't always the best student at Johns Hopkins. He says he spent more time playing Ultimate Frisbee and pool than studying. But by his late 20s, he managed to become a decent programmer and even stumbled into running his own consulting firm. Today, McClure is a founding partner of 500 Startups, a Silicon Valley venture capital firm and startup accelerator that boasts about 1,000 investments to date. He has backed power hitters like Credit Karma credit tracker, Twilio cloud communications platform, and budgeting service.</p> <h4>What inspired you to launch 500 Startups?</h4> <p>I tell people I had to start my own business because I probably couldn't get a venture capital job at another company. I've had a long and challenging road in Silicon Valley. It took 10 to 20 years to figure out what the hell I was doing—how to run a startup and how to make good investments. But along the way, I got experience as an entrepreneur, an engineer, and eventually an angel investor.</p> <p>I felt like I had some expertise to offer other people and hopefully help them figure it out a little faster than I did. I had a lot of different ideas to help startups, not just financially but with customer acquisition and marketing. And since I had both an engineering and marketing background, a lot of entrepreneurs felt I could speak their language.</p> <p>Gradually, I started thinking that I could put together a small fund for 500 Startups.</p> <p>I made about 13 personal investments between 2008 and 2010. Most of the time, the investments didn't work out, but a few worked out really well. Three out of the 13 ended up getting acquired for more than $100 million. If you think, "Only one of 20 companies will be successful," then you want to have at least 20 investments or more. We started investing early and often.</p> <p>500 Startups is a different kind of VC firm. We run an accelerator program. We invest at the seed stage. We invest internationally. We build community, run conferences and events, and produce media and content about the startup world.</p> <h4>What has been the biggest surprise since launching 500 Startups?</h4> <p>That our strategy looks like it's actually working. Initially when we started, and still to this day, we had a lot of critics to our approach. They called us "spray and pray" investors, and they didn't agree with our accelerator model. Who knows? They might be right. But we've been fortunate over the last five years that 500 Startups is playing out somewhat according to strategy.</p> <h4>What makes for a can't-miss pitch?</h4> <p>It's pretty basic. We're looking for functional products, early customer usage, and, in some cases, a stream of revenue already. We tend to jump in a little earlier than others. Usually we're not just looking for a good idea but evidence of a successful product that people are actually looking for.</p> <h4>What ruins a pitch every time?</h4> <p>When founders talk a lot about the idea but not about how customers are using it or why they need to use it. Often, people will talk too much about the future of the product and not what they've already accomplished. I'm more interested when an entrepreneur talks in the past tense than future.</p> <h4>What's the oddest experience you've had with an entrepreneur?</h4> <p>One or two years ago, we had a startup whose founders had some really interesting stuff come back on their background check. One of the founders had a DUI, another had an arrest for marijuana usage, and another had changed names a couple of times. We did the investment anyway, and the company's doing pretty well actually.</p> <h4>What are the big mistakes you see entrepreneurs make when just starting out?</h4> <p>Surprisingly, entrepreneurs have been getting a lot smarter over the years. Historically, their challenges were spending too much money and time on a product before getting it out. But we're seeing improved outcomes in that area. We like to see companies shipping product regularly and getting early iterations out the door. Hopefully, they're not in their own heads too much and thinking of what to build instead of working with customers to find what they like and what they need.</p> <h4>Are there any investments that you regret?</h4> <p>It's usually the companies that I don't invest in that I end up regretting. I very famously passed on Uber, which turned out to be a multimillion-dollar mistake. I had the opportunity to invest in them years ago. I still have the email somewhere that they sent me. I thought it was too expensive and they weren't serious enough about it. I was really, really wrong.</p> <p>Investing in companies and having them not work is the default. We're not surprised when we make a bad investment. That's pretty standard. But most investors face what they call FOMO—fear of missing out. Most of us are worried about overlooking or saying no to something that will be big later. It results in us making more stupid decisions sometimes. It's almost an irrational fear. You're never going to get every deal. But it hurts even more when you realize you missed one of the best investment opportunities in the last 10 years.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 A sentimental serenade <p>Back in 1973, Clayton Kallman, A&S '65, was tubing down Florida's Ichetucknee River with Linda Gutheil, Nurs '72 (Cert), '81, when he had an epiphany: He wanted to marry her.</p> <p>He spent a week thinking it over, then told the news to friend Mark Goldstein, A&S '73, Peab '75, a student with whom he shared a rowhouse near Homewood. Goldstein, who was about to begin percussion studies at the Peabody Institute, offered to write and conduct a tune to be performed at the proposal.</p> <p>The plan was set. A brass trio with Goldstein as conductor would show up at Gutheil's house in Bethesda, Maryland, so that Kallman could profess his love between interludes of music. Kallman would then propose, and, assuming all went according to plan, everyone would celebrate to the sound of Mendelssohn's "Wedding March." "This was just the sort of unique thing that Mark would engineer," says Alan Lane, A&S '73, a friend of Goldstein's who played the trumpet at the occasion.</p> <p>On the day of the proposal, the musicians donned suits and the young men headed to Bethesda. As Kallman and his entourage made their way to the backyard of Gutheil's home, her parents and siblings watched from a nearby window. "She didn't even realize at the absolute beginning that I was proposing," says Kallman.</p> <p>The proposal was a success, and Gutheil and Kallman are still happily married 41 years later. Kallman and Lane have remained close to Goldstein. The friends are now scattered at different points across the country: Kallman is mostly retired from his business developing student apartments in Gainesville, Florida; Lane still lives in Baltimore and is in charge of open government at the Social Security Administration; and Goldstein lives in San Francisco and is a senior technical writer for Google.</p> <p>Kallman recalls going to New York City with Goldstein to watch Shakespeare in the Park. Lane remembers the parties with Goldstein after combined rehearsals and performances of the Hopkins and Goucher glee clubs and the Goucher-Hopkins Orchestra.</p> <p>As for Goldstein, he considers both friends to be family. "Just the knowledge that Clayton knows so many of the people who were important to me—he knew both my parents, my grandma, he knows my sisters—in that sense, he is a big brother, and a good one," says Goldstein. "Alan is a best friend for life because of all the years and music making we shared at Hopkins and in Baltimore."</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 A tour of Hong Kong from alumni <p>A quasi city-state experiencing an evolving and at times turbulent relationship with mainland China, Hong Kong nevertheless remains atop the list of the most visited cities by international tourists.</p> <p>"I love Hong Kong's energy—it's a city that always has something going on, be it the dynamic skyscrapers that decorate the skyline or the bustling markets of Mong Kok," says Chelsea Borchers, A&S '08.</p> <p>Borchers, who works as a merchandising account manager, is one of more than 200 alums who make up the burgeoning Johns Hopkins Hong Kong alumni chapter. Members of the four-year-old club meet for activities that range from dinner and drinks to volunteering at college fairs. Chapter president Victor Hip Wo Yeung, A&S '01, a Hong Kong native and urologist, lives in nearby Kowloon. Both he and Borchers find the sheer number of inhabitants in Hong Kong to be a bit overwhelming, but they offer these tips for travelers who want to brave the crowds and see the best of the city.</p> <p>Hong Kong is famous for its high-rises, like the International Commerce Centre and International Finance Centre. For one of the best views of these spectacular edifices, Borchers says to gaze skyward from the city's waterfront Central Piers.</p> <p>Perhaps the greatest way to see this celebrated skyline, however, is from the water. For a bargain $2.50, catch a ride on the Star Ferry at night for the best view of the harbor. Borchers also recommends sailing on a junk, a traditional Chinese boat with sails that expand and collapse like fans. "The boat goes to a scenic location around Hong Kong Island or Sai Kung in Kowloon and anchors near a beach so you can swim the day away," she says.</p> <p>Dry off and head back to land by nightfall to experience the Temple Street Night Market. It boasts great people watching and stalls brimming with all sorts of goods, from teapots to grilled squid. At the end of the block, fortunetellers offer their predictions in impeccable English.</p> <p>For those looking to escape the urban jungle, a surprising number of hiking trails dot Hong Kong's less-developed areas. Borchers and Yeung say one of the most popular hikes is up Old Peak Road to the top of Victoria Peak, Hong Kong's tallest mountain. Take the subway to Central Station, then hop on the escalators—part of the longest outdoor escalator system in the world—to reach the trail.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Student-led group Step Up promotes philanthropy <p>Every year in April, a group of students holds an event called Study Break in front of the Brody Learning Commons on the Homewood campus. Students nosh on snacks and relax with massages, but they also learn about how donor funding supports the Sheridan Libraries and its vast collection of more than 3.7 million books, 171,000 print and e-journals, and 900,000 e-books. "Did you know that the Brody Learning Commons is funded almost entirely through private philanthropy?" reads a post advertising the event on the Facebook page for Step Up, the student-led group that plans Study Break.</p> <p>Founded in 2009, Step Up's overall mission "is to promote the idea that Hopkins wouldn't be what it is today without philanthropy and alumni giving," says Nicole Aronson, a senior public health major and a Step Up co-chair. In the past, Step Up had restricted its activities to one packed week in April, called Step Up Week. But in fall 2014, the group started adding to its calendar month-ly events that educate students about philanthropy in "fun and fresh" ways, such as through Insta-gram and trivia contests. While most of these events have drawn an average of 200 students, a cou-ple of them, such as Kickoff, hosted more than 750 attendees.</p> <p>"Creating a culture of philanthropy is something that is necessary when students are undergrad-uates, rather than waiting until they are alums, then suddenly expecting them to be philanthropic," says Shaun Grahe, associate director for Student & Young Alumni Programs. If students understand how philanthropy has shaped their experience at Hopkins, then "hopefully when they're in a place to be philanthropic as alums, they'll take advantage of that."</p> <p>Students also participate in philanthropy themselves. "Most people, when they think philanthropy, they think money," Grahe says. Step Up "highlights the fact that it's not only money; it's giving your time." During Step Up Week's annual Smoothies for Service & Totes for Tots event, for example, students fill bags with toothbrushes, shampoo, and crossword puzzles, among other things, for children who are being treated at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center and their families. They also drink smoothies to celebrate the number of community service hours they collectively logged the previous year, such as the 97,405 hours that undergraduates contributed in 2013–14.</p> <p>Step Up's most popular event is Thankful Thursday, which has been a staple of Step Up Week since the group's inception. Students grab Chipotle burritos and write letters to young alumni do-nors thanking them for supporting Johns Hopkins. "[The event] is really instilling this idea that in order for Hopkins to sustain its legacy and its reputation, alumni are an integral part of doing that," Aronson says.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Alumna Hallie Jackson works as a journalist for NBC <p>Krieger School alumni may be seeing a familiar face when tuning in to the <em>Today Show</em> or <em>NBC Nightly News</em> these days. After working as a journalist for Hearst Television in Washington, D.C., Hallie Jackson, A&S '06, joined NBC News last year to become one of the network's correspondents, based out of Los Angeles. Since joining NBC, she's been busy covering events like the first successful summit of Yosemite's El Capitan by two free climbers and the recent measles outbreaks.</p> <p>"It's something different every day," says Jackson. "It's a new adventure with every phone call and new assignment."</p> <p>Jackson says her experience studying political science at Johns Hopkins taught her to think both rigorously and creatively.</p> <p>"That has certainly served me in my career," Jackson says. "Hopkins forces you to push your boundaries when it comes to working hard, being diligent, and being very hungry to learn more."</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Alumnus Lawrence Manchester is a music mixer for 'The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon' <p>As a freelance music mixer, Lawrence Manchester, Peab '94, '95, loves that each project requires stepping into a different mindset. For the film <em>The Last Five Years</em>, he turned snippets of performances that were filmed in many takes on busy New York City streets into complete and fluid songs. At his regular gig as the music mixer for <em>The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon</em>, he works in more controlled environments. Manchester, who studied percussion and recording arts and sciences at Johns Hopkins, balances the vocals and instruments for songs ranging from an energetic medley of duets with Fallon and Kelly Clarkson to an intimate dressing room performance of Hozier's "Take Me to Church." "A good music mixer needs to be able to hear what the potential is for a piece of recorded music [that] is still in its very raw form, and then shape it into what he or she imagines it to be," he says.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Class notes <h4>1953</h4> <p><strong>Albert B. Shackman, HS '53, Med '54 (PGF)</strong>, manages, plays the clarinet, and sings for the Goldenaires, a big-band-style musical group. The retired Johns Hopkins professor of radiology is enjoying life at the Edenwald Retirement Community in Towson, Maryland.</p> <h4>1958</h4> <p><strong>Mary Jean S. Silk, A&S '58 (PhD)</strong>, lives in Johannesburg, where she has been admitted to the Order of Simon of Cyrene in the Anglican Church of Southern Africa, the highest award that can be bestowed by the church on a layperson. In 2014, Silk was appointed the first churchwarden emerita, providing oversight on financial matters and mentoring the younger generation at Johannesburg's St. Mary's Cathedral.</p> <h4>1960</h4> <p><strong>James Kallis, Engr '60</strong>, is a reliability engineer who applies his expertise to improve medical and dental devices. In the past two years, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has issued patents for two of his inventions.</p> <p><strong>Frank A. Ward II, A&S '60</strong>, was a recipient of the 2014 Commissioner's Diversity and Inclusion Award by Social Security Administration Acting Commissioner Carolyn Colvin. Ward is a senior attorney in the administration's Office of Disability Adjudication and Review in Syracuse, New York.</p> <h4>1965</h4> <p><strong>Gerald H. "Jerry" Gizinski, Engr '65</strong>, is retired from a career in the energy industry and has done some consulting and entrepreneurial work.</p> <p><strong>Alan M. Wiseman, A&S '65</strong>, is celebrating 50 years of marriage to his wife, Paula, with whom he has three children. Wiseman is senior of counsel in Covington & Burling's Washington, D.C., office.</p> <h4>1968</h4> <p><strong>W. Bruce Fye, A&S '68, Med '72, '77 (PGF), '78 (MA)</strong>, is professor emeritus of medicine and the history of medicine at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.</p> <h4>1971</h4> <p><strong>John A. Eckstein, SAIS '71 (Dipl), '72</strong>, director of corporate practice for Fairfield and Woods law firm, was named a 2015 Super Lawyer and one of the top five securities lawyers in the Denver area by <em>5280</em> magazine. He also serves on the advisory board for the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis and hikes the Colorado and Continental Divide trails.</p> <h4>1976</h4> <p><strong>Morris G. "Skip" Miller, A&S '76</strong>, was selected as a finalist for <em>South Florida Business & Wealth</em>'s 2015 Leaders in Law in the corporate law category. Miller is a shareholder and attorney for Greenspoon Marder Law and focuses on public finance and representation of nonprofits.</p> <h4>1979</h4> <p><strong>Colin Chinn, A&S '79, SPH '82</strong>, serves as U.S. Pacific Command surgeon for the U.S. Navy. He is responsible for all U.S. military medical forces and for oversight of U.S. military global health engagement activities in the Asia-Pacific region. He recently received a two-star rear admiral promotion.</p> <p>**Louise Erdrich, A&S '79 (MA)****, has been named the recipient of the Library of Congress Prize for American Fiction for 2015.</p> <h4>1980</h4> <p><strong>Jacqueline G. "Jackie" Coolidge, A&S '80</strong>, retired from the World Bank but continues to consult, which keeps her traveling to places such as Ethiopia, Vietnam, and Turkey. She and her husband, Mau VanDuren, live in Chevy Chase, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Carole Fern Rafique, Engr '80</strong> married a law school classmate and has two sons. One is a freshman at Johns Hopkins. She lives in Surrey, England, and works as a barrister, prosecuting for the crown.</p> <h4>1981</h4> <p><strong>William T. Barto, A&S '81</strong>, is an administrative law judge with the Social Security Administration in Charlottesville, Virginia. His youngest daughter is a first-year student at the University of Virginia.</p> <p><strong>E. Clarke Porter, Ed '81 (MS)</strong>, has been a driving force in the computer-based testing industry since its inception, creating the first commercial computerized testing technology. He currently serves as vice president and general manager of Pearson Credential Management and in 2013 received an award for professional contributions to testing by the Association of Test Publishers.</p> <h4>1982</h4> <p><strong>Wolfgang Natter, A&S '82 (MA), '90 (PhD)</strong>, was appointed vice president for academic affairs and dean of the faculty at Chestnut Hill College in Philadelphia in 2014.</p> <h4>1984</h4> <p><strong>Janine Austin Clayton, A&S '84</strong>, has received the Lila A. Wallis Award from the American Medical Women's Association. A board-certified ophthalmologist, Clayton serves as associate director for research on women's health and director of the office of research on women's health at the National Institutes of Health.</p> <p><strong>Lisa Ginsburg, A&S '84</strong>, is a writer, director, and editor whose article, "Worlds Apart in Singapore," was the cover story for issue 15 of the journal <em>Asian Jewish Life</em>.</p> <h4>1986</h4> <p><strong>Bradley L. Frohman, Engr '86 (MS)</strong>, was hired in January as director of portfolio management for the United Network for Organ Sharing, which manages the nation's transplant system.</p> <h4>1987</h4> <p><strong>Karen M. McNamara, Engr '87</strong>, has accepted the position of deputy program executive for NASA's Orion program. The Orion spacecraft will serve as an exploration vehicle to carry humans to space.</p> <h4>1989</h4> <p><strong>Sagar Lonial, A&S '89</strong>, has been named chief medical officer of the Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University. He is also professor and executive vice chair of the Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology at the Emory University School of Medicine. Lonial is a leading authority in multiple myeloma treatment and research.</p> <h4>1990</h4> <p><strong>Andrew Scheffer, A&S '90</strong>, has returned to the U.S. after living in Singapore. He and his wife, Sonja, welcomed their first child, Charlotte, in January. A wealth management professional, Scheffer has decided to start a business teaching mindfulness at corporations.</p> <h4>1992</h4> <p><strong>Kim D. Butler, A&S '92 (MA), '95 (PhD)</strong>, received a grant from the Fulbright U.S. Scholar Program to conduct research in Brazil, studying the country's Black Power movement of the 1970s. She is an associate professor of history at Rutgers University and president of the Association for the Study of the Worldwide African Diaspora.</p> <h4>1993</h4> <p><strong>Kathryn Ananda-Owens, Peab '93 (MM), '98 (DMA)</strong>, was promoted to professor of music at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota, where she has been a member of the piano faculty for 15 years. She also serves on the board of directors of the Performing Arts Medicine Association, which is dedicated to the health of performing artists.</p> <p><strong>Charles H. Luh, A&S '93</strong>, serves on the board of directors for the 1000 Books Foundation, which promotes the nationwide early literacy program, 1000 Books Before Kindergarten. In April, Luh presented at the Arkansas Literary Festival.</p> <p><strong>John R. Mattox II, A&S '93</strong>, lives with his wife and three children in Franklin, Tennessee, where he works as a measurement consultant for the Corporate Executive Board.</p> <h4>1994</h4> <p><strong>Francis J. H. Park, A&S '94</strong>, finished a year as deputy director of the Commander's Action Group of the International Security Assistance Force in Kabul, Afghanistan. He now serves at the U.S. Army Center of Military History as a historian, covering the U.S. Army's Afghanistan campaigns from 2001 to 2014.</p> <p><strong>Timothy A. Waire Jr., Engr '94 (MS)</strong>, joined the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation as chief information officer in January.</p> <h4>1995</h4> <p><strong>Linda Lang, Bus '95 (MS)</strong>, joined the KatzAbosch accounting firm in Maryland as a government contracts consultant in January.</p> <p><strong>Adam D. Lippe, A&S '95</strong>, is married with three children. He has served as a prosecutor for more than 15 years, during which time he has been an assistant state's attorney and chief of the Baltimore County state's attorney's economic crimes unit and animal abuse unit.</p> <h4>1996</h4> <p><strong>Will Anderson, A&S '96 (MS)</strong>, is director for the Department of Economic and Workforce Development for Baltimore County, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Michael A. Downs, Engr '96</strong>, was promoted to vice president of land development for Toll Brothers. He previously served as an assistant vice president of land development in Pennsylvania and Delaware.</p> <p><strong>Megan A. Gillispie-Artz, A&S '96 (MAG)</strong>, joined the Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Boston as vice president for development in February.</p> <p><strong>Rae Lynn Guest, Engr '96</strong>, and<strong>Christopher M. Guest, Engr '96</strong>, are proud to announce the birth of their son, Marshall, on July 1, 2014. He joins big sister Cameron and big brother RJ.</p> <h4>1997</h4> <p><strong>Sherita H. Golden, HS '97, Med '00 (PGF), SPH '00</strong>, assumed the role of executive vice chair of the Department of Medicine at Johns Hopkins on February 1. She serves as the Hugh P. McCormick Family Professor of Endocrinology and Metabolism.</p> <p><strong>Edward W. Smith, SAIS Nanj '97 (Cert)</strong>, lived and worked for 22 years in China. He and his family have returned to Melbourne, Australia, where he works for Monash University. He remains involved with the Australia China Alumni Association he founded in 2007 and with Beijing Consulting Group, publisher of <em>BJCG China Higher Education</em>.</p> <h4>1999</h4> <p><strong>Ian Lee Brown, Bus '99 (MS), '04 (Cert)</strong>, was named executive director of Covenant Village of Florida senior living community in February.</p> <p><strong>Chicquita Crawford, Bus '99</strong>, chairs the Baltimore City Special Education Citizens' Advisory Committee, which works to enable the Board of School Commissioners and the school district's central office staff to improve the delivery of special education services.</p> <p><strong>Sherrance Henderson, Bus '99 (Cert)</strong>, has signed a three-license agreement with Golden Corral Corporation and has broken ground on her first Golden Corral franchise in Poughkeepsie, New York. The restaurant is scheduled to open in July.</p> <p><strong>Donald Walker, Ed '99 (MAT), '01 (Cert)</strong>, earned a doctorate in educational leadership and policy studies from the University of Maryland College of Education in December 2014.</p> <h4>2000</h4> <p><strong>Michael D. Hoke, A&S '00 (MA)</strong>, is of counsel at Brownstein Hyatt Farber Schreck and is a shareholder as of January. Working out of the law firm's Denver office, he focuses on complex civil litigation.</p> <p><strong>Donna Bilu Martin, A&S '00, Med '04</strong>, recently started a dermatology practice, Premier Dermatology, MD, in Aventura, Florida. She and her husband,<strong>Samuel Martin, Engr '01</strong>, celebrated 10 years of marriage in May.</p> <p><strong>Mark O'Neill, SPH '00</strong>, has been selected for membership in the Young Presidents' Organization, a global network of young chief executives in more than 125 countries. He is CEO of the Gastro Florida gastroenterology practice in Tampa Bay, Florida.</p> <h4>2001</h4> <p><strong>Brian Josias, A&S '01</strong>, and his wife, Risa, announced the arrival of their daughter, Eliana Belle, born on October 21, 2014. The family resides in Chicago, where Josias works for Schiff Hardin as an associate who focuses on white-collar criminal defense and complex commercial litigation.</p> <h4>2002</h4> <p><strong>Jarrod Neal Bernstein, A&S '02</strong>, his wife, Hildy Kuryk, and son, Jake, welcomed Lillian David to the family on November 18, 2014. Bernstein serves as senior vice president for marketing and communications for CarePoint Health, an integrated hospital and physician provider. In 2014, he was named a captain of the Saltaire Volunteer Fire Company in Saltaire, New York.</p> <p><strong>Theodore C. Pierson, Med '02, (PhD)</strong>, is chief of the viral pathogenesis section of the Laboratory of Viral Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. He was a 2014 fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology.</p> <h4>2003</h4> <p><strong>Garrett Gleeson, A&S '03</strong>, has been named director of development and major gifts for the Grayson-Jockey Club Research Foundation, a nonprofit dedicated to advancing equine medical research. He lives in Brooklyn, New York, with his wife, Kate.</p> <h4>2004</h4> <p><strong>Douglas M. Ruderfer, Engr '04, '05 (MSE)</strong>, has received a 2015 Entrepreneurial Award from the Education UK Alumni Awards, which honors the outstanding achievements made by professionals who were educated in the United Kingdom. Ruderfer received his doctorate from Cardiff University.</p> <p><strong>Brad Ryan, Med '04</strong>, has been appointed chief commerce officer for Apervita, the fastest growing health analytics and data marketplace. The physician and health executive will lead Apervita's commercial, product, and market expansion.</p> <p><strong>Yonit Serkin, A&S '04, SAIS '04 (Dipl), '05</strong>, has been named one of the 40 Under 40 in finance and technology by <em>The Marker</em>, Israel's leading financial magazine. She lives outside Tel Aviv with her husband and two sons.</p> <h4>2005</h4> <p><strong>Benjamin Deitchman, A&S '05</strong>, earned a doctorate in public policy from Georgia Tech in 2014 and is currently a visiting assistant professor of public policy at the Saunders College of Business at Rochester Institute of Technology in New York, where he lives with his fiancée, Sarah Wilson.</p> <p><strong>J. Patrick Rouse, A&S '05</strong>, is a shareholder in the real estate and corporate law sections of Langley & Banack and was named a 2014 Outstanding Young Lawyer by the San Antonio Young Lawyers Association. He and his wife, Claire, welcomed their first child, John Preston, in April 2013.</p> <h4>2006</h4> <p><strong>Saurabh "Rob" Aggarwal, Engr '06 (PhD), Med '07 (PGF)</strong>, was recognized by the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy for his research abstracts, which earned platinum and bronze medals in the academy's October 2014 journal issue.</p> <p><strong>Charles Alwakeel, A&S '06</strong>, is an architect working for Goldman Harris law firm in New York City. He advises developers on land use and zoning issues. He also runs his own small residential architecture and design practice.</p> <h4>2007</h4> <p><strong>John S. Butler, Ed '07 (MS)</strong>, is chief of the Howard County Department of Fire and Rescue Services in Maryland as of January 20.</p> <h4>2008</h4> <p><strong>Crystal L. Cuhlane, A&S '08 (MA), '09 (PhD)</strong>, has joined the San Diego law office of McKenna Long & Aldridge as an associate. She focuses on patent prosecution in the areas of chemistry, pharma-ceuticals, and biotechnology.</p> <p><strong>Brian Pike, SPH '08</strong>, and his wife, Alexandra Mora, are pleased to announce the arrival of their first child, Gabriel Alexander Pike, who was born in Singapore on January 6.</p> <h4>2009</h4> <p><strong>Steve Marquis Fernandes, Bus '09 (Cert), '14 (MBA)</strong>, was on the winning team at the Merck Serono Innovation Cup, held in Germany in July 2014. The competition was designed to support new talent interested in drug discovery.</p> <p><strong>Eric K. Gerard, SAIS '09</strong>, has joined the Houston law firm of Abraham, Watkins, Nichols, Sorrels, Agosto & Friend as an associate.</p> <p><strong>Rehman Javaid, Engr '09 (MS)</strong>, is CEO of Sybersense, a cyber security startup in the Washington, D.C., area.</p> <p><strong>Elizabeth Scala, Nurs '09 (MSN/MBA)</strong>, has been elected to the board of the American Holistic Nurses Association.</p> <h4>2010</h4> <p><strong>Samuel Johnson, Ed '10, '11 (MS)</strong>, made the <em>Forbes</em> 30 Under 30 Law and Policy list for 2015. The former Baltimore police officer currently serves as the training and exercise coordinator for the City of Baltimore Mayor's Office of Emergency Management.</p> <h4>2011</h4> <p><strong>Karen Hong, A&S '11</strong>, has received a 2015 Gates Cambridge Scholarship, awarded to outstanding applicants from outside the United Kingdom to pursue postgraduate degrees at the University of Cambridge. A medical student at Stanford University, Hong hopes to work in preventive eye screening and treatment in underserved Asian countries.</p> <p><strong>Robert Romano, A&S '11</strong>,<strong>Ashish Dua, Engr '11</strong>, and<strong>Daniel Peng, Engr '12</strong>, have developed Switchmate, a modern light timer that installs over existing light switches and is controlled through an app. In March, they announced they had sold more than 3,000 units through their crowdfunding campaign.</p> <p><strong>Kimberly Shorter, A&S '11 (MA)</strong>, will be one of the featured playwrights in the New Works Reading Series of the 2015 DC Black Theatre Festival held in June.</p> <h4>2012</h4> <p><strong>Seungyoung Hwang, Engr '12 (MSE)</strong>, received a Junior Professional Award from SAS Global Forum and an award from the SouthEast SAS Users Group Conference last year for contributions to the statistical analysis system community. Hwang is a staff biostatistician in the Department of Mental Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.</p> <p><strong>Courtney B. Smith, A&S '12 (MA)</strong>, was hired in February to serve as a public relations and communications manager for Deloitte, located in the Washington, D.C., area.</p> <p><strong>Eleanor Thadani, A&S '12</strong>, and<strong>Rebecca Krishnan-Ayer, A&S '13</strong>, work together at J.Crew's e-commerce division in New York City. They also help plan activities for the NYC Young Alumni Chapter.</p> <h4>2013</h4> <p><strong>Nicholas "Nicky" DePaul, A&S '13</strong>, is vice president for business development at Locent, a company that helps businesses sell products and services through two-way text messaging.</p> <p><strong>Kelvin O. Medina, Engr '13 (MS)</strong>, served as a panelist for the Enterprise Network Security/PCI Compliance event hosted by the South Florida Technology Alliance in February. He is an information security engineer at the University of Miami.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 In memoriam <p><strong>Hugo V. Rizzoli, A&S '36, Med '40, HS '44</strong>, December 4, 2014, Chevy Chase, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Betty Q. Hansen, Nurs '40 (Cert)</strong>, December 29, 2014, Portland, Oregon.</p> <p><strong>Roth G. Zahn, Engr '42</strong>, February 4, Parkville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Jean Girton Davis, Nurs '43 (Cert), '49</strong>, December 13, 2014, Jamestown, New York.</p> <p><strong>Robert Burwell Fulton III, A&S '43</strong>, November 19, 2014, Charlottesville, Virginia.</p> <p><strong>Adele M. Thompson, Nurs '45 (Dipl)</strong>, December 13, 2014, Middletown, New York.</p> <p><strong>Peter Randall, Med '46</strong>, November 16, 2014, Gwynedd, Pennsylvania.</p> <p><strong>Ruth Musser Wiggins, A&S '46 (MA)</strong>, December 29, 2014, Collierville, Tennessee.</p> <p><strong>Harry W. Klasmeier, A&S '49</strong>, November 20, 2014, Annapolis, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Charles B. Rawlins, Engr '49</strong>, December 30, 2014, Massena, New York.</p> <p><strong>William H. Duquette, Engr '50</strong>, January 18, Ocean City, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Morris E. Brodwin, Engr '51 (MS), '57 (PhD)</strong>, November 4, 2014, Evanston, Illinois.</p> <p><strong>Jacqueline Fosdick Bronson, Nurs '51</strong>, October 28, 2014, Tampa, Florida.</p> <p><strong>Milton C. Fisher, A&S '51, '59 (MA)</strong>, November 11, 2014, Quarryville, Pennsylvania.</p> <p><strong>Rosalyn M. Ghysels, Nurs '51 (Dipl), '53</strong>, October 23, 2014, Grand Rapids, Michigan.</p> <p><strong>Richard P. Nickelsen, A&S '51 (MA), '53 (PhD)</strong>, November 23, 2014, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.</p> <p><strong>Clark I. Simms Jr., Engr '51</strong>, November 19, 2014, East New Market, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Ralph L. Disney, Engr '52, '55 (MSE), '64 (PhD)</strong>, November 11, 2014, Blacksburg, Virginia.</p> <p><strong>Kenneth E. Kilgore, A&S '52</strong>, October 25, 2014, Fredericksburg, Virginia.</p> <p><strong>John S. Hubbard, Med '53</strong>, November 20, 2014, Winchester, Kentucky.</p> <p><strong>Louis A. DeMonte, A&S '54</strong>, November 1, 2014, Bridgewater, Virginia.</p> <p><strong>Leonard T. Phillips, Engr '54</strong>, December 4, 2014, Bel Air, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>John H. Hoke, Engr '55 (PhD)</strong>, September 1, 2014, Williamsburg, Pennsylvania.</p> <p><strong>Franklin L. Mitchell Jr., Med '55</strong>, November 14, 2014, Columbia, Missouri.</p> <p><strong>Donald E. Erb, Engr '56</strong>, December 9, 2014, Gaithersburg, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Nancy R. Grimm, Med '56</strong>, November 29, 2014, Portland, Oregon.</p> <p><strong>Kenneth M. Kiser, Engr '56 (PhD)</strong>, October 28, 2014, Buffalo, New York.</p> <p><strong>Richard I. Lidz, A&S '56</strong>, November 17, 2014, Princeton, New Jersey.</p> <p><strong>Joseph Sonnenfeld, A&S '57 (PhD)</strong>, December 9, 2014, Colorado Springs, Colorado.</p> <p><strong>Perra S. Bell, A&S '58 (MA)</strong>, September 26, 2014, Marco Island, Florida.</p> <p><strong>Frederick C. Evering Jr., Engr '58, '60 (MSE), '65 (PhD)</strong>, December 30, 2014, Shelburne, Ver-mont.</p> <p><strong>Mark P. Pentecost Jr., HS '58</strong>, November 10, 2014, Atlanta.</p> <p><strong>Ruth M. Bridges, A&S '59 (MAT)</strong>, November 8, 2014, Alexandria, Virginia.</p> <p><strong>Junetta Jones, Peab '59 (Cert), '60 (BM/AD)</strong>, February 17, Upper Marlboro, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Otto Olsen, A&S '59 (PhD)</strong>, December 4, 2014, Gainesville, Florida.</p> <p><strong>Kay Barclay Feild, Nurs '60 (Dipl)</strong>, November 25, 2014, Fayetteville, Arkansas.</p> <p><strong>William J. Weisman, Engr '61</strong>, December 29, 2014, Royal Oak, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Frederick L. Smith III, A&S '63</strong>, December 25, 2014, Short Hills, New Jersey.</p> <p><strong>Carl O. Mead, Med '64 (MD/PhD)</strong>, October 19, 2014, Wenatchee, Washington.</p> <p><strong>Lawrence K. Saunders, Engr '64, '71 (Cert), '74 (MS)</strong>, November 21, 2014, Govans, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Lowell Bruce Anderson, Engr '65</strong>, November 23, 2014, Bowie, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>R. James MacNaughton Jr., A&S '65</strong>, November 2, 2014, Greenville, South Carolina.</p> <p><strong>Eugenie Funda Obst, Bus '65, A&S '70 (MLA)</strong>, December 15, 2014, Guilford, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Jonathan A. Alpert, A&S '66</strong>, November 15, 2014, Miami Beach, Florida.</p> <p><strong>Newton J. Sorrow Jr., A&S '66</strong>, December 13, 2014, Timonium, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Lenore Fine, A&S '67 (MLA)</strong>, November 10, 2014, Baltimore.</p> <p><strong>Maria de Moraes-Ruehsen, Med '68 (PGF), HS '62, '71</strong>, November 2, 2014, Chestertown, Mary-land.</p> <p><strong>Thomas P. Christino, Bus '69</strong>, January 10, Cocoa Beach, Florida.</p> <p><strong>Stephen Embree Barnett, HS '70</strong>, October 19, 2014, Austin, Texas.</p> <p><strong>Richard B. Wesley, Med '71</strong>, November 20, 2014, Seattle.</p> <p><strong>Thomas A. Cebula, A&S '73 (PhD), Med '78 (PGF)</strong>, October 29, 2014, Baltimore.</p> <p><strong>Marita W. Watts, Ed '73 (Cert)</strong>, November 19, 2014, Bel Air, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Roldah N. Cameron, A&S '76 (MLA)</strong>, November 26, 2014, Basking Ridge, New Jersey.</p> <p><strong>Joseph W. Chope, SAIS '79</strong>, November 13, 2014, Mount Pleasant, South Carolina.</p> <p><strong>Marilyn H. Dawson, Ed '80 (MS)</strong>, January 28, Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts.</p> <p><strong>John Baiardi, HS '81</strong>, November 16, 2014, Mount Vernon, New York.</p> <p><strong>Arlynne S. Stark, Bus '84 (MAS)</strong>, November 17, 2014, Evergreen, Colorado.</p> <p><strong>Beth Mona Deutch, Med '86</strong>, December 11, 2014, Rumson, New Jersey.</p> <p><strong>William E. Lampal, Engr '87</strong>, November 1, 2014, Las Vegas.</p> <p><strong>Robert L. Taylor, A&S '87 (MLA)</strong>, November 17, 2014, Arnold, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Mary D. John, Nurs '92, November 23, 2014</strong>, Crownsville, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Andrew Kenneth Milne, A&S '96 (MS)</strong>, November 9, 2014, Ann Arbor, Michigan.</p> <p><strong>Brian Sant Angelo, Bus '02 (MBA)</strong>, January 24, Alexandria, Virginia.</p> <p><strong>Donald P. Cole, Engr '03 (MS)</strong>, November 17, 2014, Laurel, Maryland.</p> <p><strong>Dylan L. Yu, Med '03</strong>, November 5, 2014, Rapid City, South Dakota.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Unforgivable Offense <p>June 3, 2010.</p> <p>That was the day my life changed forever. That was the day I met God.</p> <p>Not "God" in the celestial sense. God in the Park-Avenue-duplex sense, the MoMA-trustee sense, the Prius-at-the-East Hampton-house-because-this-year's-chosen-cause-is-the-environment-and-screw-Tesla-because-Elon Musk- snubbed-me-at-a-gala-last-year sense.</p> <p>June 3, 2010.</p> <p>It was my first day at a New York City megabank, and I had a sit-down with the master of the universe.</p> <p>All the analysts would meet him at one time or another over the course of our two-week orientation. I was merely the first and, to be clear, those who were more blasphemy-conscious than myself may have called this gentleman <em>a</em> god. A piece in the puzzle of pinstriped hegemony that makes the Wall Street world go round, but not <em>the</em> undisputed Almighty. Well, to me, on that day, in that office that was larger than most middle-class American homes, there was no one but him. He was the ultimate. He knew all. He had won all the games we mortals knew how to play. Until he asked me where I went to college.</p> <p>"Johns Hopkins," I said.</p> <p>"Oh," he said. "John Hopkins. That's a fantastic school." John. Hopkins.</p> <p>"God, you hath forsaken me," I thought, as the walls of his magnificent oaken kingdom crashed down around me, rare coins and finely polished doubloons bursting from his chest as he exploded in a cloud of French-cuffed philistinism.</p> <p>How could someone so accomplished say what he said? Do what he did?</p> <p>Many people had mispronounced my school's name before—my uncle from Orlando, my stepdad. The university bookstore even sold T-shirts making fun of the dolts who refused to remember that all-important consonant. "Johnsssssss Hopkins," the silly garments read and I laughed and laughed and laughed. "I should buy that shirt for my uncle from Orlando," I thought. "Or my stepdad."</p> <p>The joke was over now. The laughter had stopped. Frankly, I wasn't sure if I'd ever laugh again (and five years later, I still haven't). Did he not hear me say Johns Hopkins?!</p> <p>I stared into the shine of his forehead and realized: This man wasn't God. He was the devil. He forgot the damn S. Or, maybe worse, he never knew he needed it at all. To this day and till the day I die, my greatest regret will be that I failed to correct him.</p> <p>June 3, 2010.</p> <p>I left banking soon after, but what happened that day will be with me forever—a cold reminder that outside the walls of Homewood there lurk perpetrators of this one unforgivable trespass. Be vigilant, Blue Jays. There are demons among us.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Message <p><strong>In the wake of the tragic death of Freddie Gray in police custody,</strong> our city entered a wrenching moment marked by pockets of violence and days of peaceful protest.</p> <p>At the time, I reached out not only to you and other members of our university community, but also to our newest Hopkins family members: the admitted class of 2019.</p> <p>I assured them that we take the safety and security of our campuses seriously. I also let them know that we do not allow the tranquillity of our campuses to insulate us from engaging with the issues—including persistent racial and economic disparities—roiling cities across America, including ours.</p> <p>Our engagement with our city is part of our DNA. And it did not waver even as Baltimore reeled from the unrest. During the days that followed, we hosted the long-planned inaugural installment of Johns Hopkins Forums on Race in America. In a packed Shriver Hall, <em>The Atlantic</em>'s Ta-Nehisi Coates, one of America's most thoughtful and provocative commentators on race, challenged us to think anew about the sources of anger and despair that exist in so many parts of our country. Also that week, our students joined cleanup efforts in nearby neighborhoods, led and marched in peaceful protests, and debated these challenging issues with one another and their professors.</p> <p>These conversations and actions reflect the broader arc of Hopkins' commitment to Baltimore. In their research, students and faculty are investigating the underlying sociological, economic, health, and cultural forces that shape the entrenched inequalities in Baltimore. Our 21st Century Cities Initiative is taking up the challenge of addressing these concerns in an interdisciplinary way, including through a joint project with Bloomberg Philanthropies to assist cities in creating data-driven policies and practices.</p> <p>In forums at Johns Hopkins Medicine and our Bloomberg School of Public Health, our students, faculty, and staff are wrestling with the complex legacy of race in America and what it means to them personally and as citizens of the world. As an institution, we are focused on strengthening our own climate for diversity so that we can retain and attract talented people. And we are investing in our communities, from building East Baltimore's K–8 Henderson-Hopkins school, to launching an economic inclusion program that leverages our capacities as Baltimore's largest private employer, among many efforts.</p> <p>We know there is much more to do. As you read this, the media may have moved on. The issues these protests raise, however, will not disappear with the news cycle nor will Hopkins' commitment. Baltimore is resilient, inventive, and optimistic. Proudly of this city, Hopkins will work alongside our neighbors to forge a better future for our hometown.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Contributors <p><strong>Rohan Daniel Eason</strong> <a href="">("Class Smuggle," illustrations)</a> studied fine art painting in London before turning his head to illustration. Past projects include a Volkswagen ad campaign and <em>My First Kafka</em>, the first-ever retelling of Kafka for children. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div> <strong>Gabriel Popkin</strong> <a href="">("Not Always Right")</a> is a writer who focuses on science and the environment. Based in Mount Rainier, Maryland, he has written for <em>The New York Times</em>, <em>Science</em>, <em>Discover</em>, and others. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div> <strong>Cornel Rubino</strong> <a href="">("Burned Out," illustrations)</a> is an award-winning artist whose clients have included <em>The New Yorker</em>, <em>The Washington Post</em>, <em>The Atlantic</em>, and others. He has created several large-scale, temporary art installations, including <em>Mobtown</em> at Baltimore's Creative Alliance. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div> <strong>Krista Scarlett</strong> <a href="">("Playing the Odds")</a> is a writer and editor in the Frederick, Maryland, area. She has a master's degree in journalism from Syracuse University and is the managing editor of <em>Celebrate Gettysburg</em> and <em>Frederick Gorilla</em> magazines. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div> <strong>Joe Sugarman</strong> <a href="">("Blood Reprogrammed")</a> is a Baltimore-based writer whose work has recently appeared in <em>Washingtonian</em>, <em>Preservation</em>, <em>Humanities</em>, and <em>Baltimore</em> magazines. He writes about science for a variety of Johns Hopkins publications. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div> <strong>Brandon Thibodeaux</strong> <a href="">("Basic Training," photography)</a> creates documentary-style portraits. Based in Dallas, he loves exploring the American South when he's not busy shooting for clients like <em>The Los Angeles Times</em> <em>The Wall Street Journal</em>, and NPR. <div class='magazine-section-break'></div> <strong>On the cover</strong><br /> <strong>Joanna Neborsky</strong> considers it the lucky assignment that allows her to dust off her supply of archival materials—in this case, a stack of books on military history. For the cover art to accompany <a href="">"From Ashes to Amity,"</a> Neborsky deployed a cutout of a German soldier standing guard in Müssingen in 1987. "The German flag became a dark, watery landscape in which he could stand for a country caught between the crimes of history and a cautiously hopeful future," she says. She dedicates the cover to the memory of her grandfather Stanley Steinbach, A&S '42.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Note <p><strong>I once drove deep into Kentucky with a man who had a unique ability.</strong></p> <p>He sold the big diesel engines that power big trucks, and he could tell me who had made an engine by its sound alone. He didn't have to see the truck. He called engines "iron," and whenever a truck started gaining on us and moved over to pass, without looking at it he'd say, "That's Cummins iron," or, "That's Ford iron." He was invariably right.</p> <p>One of the great benefits of the work we do at the magazine is the conversations we get to have with people who possess deep knowledge, sometimes of the most arcane subjects. I've spent hours talking to a woman who knows how my brain recognizes the view out my window as something I've seen before, and a man who knows by heart the timpani parts of every major symphony ever written, and a woman who knows that if a competitive swimmer stops rolling her shoulders by a fraction of an inch, she will pick up .2 seconds per lap in the pool. Then there was the mathematician who was the world's expert on… I never did understand that one.</p> <p>In this issue of the magazine, we bring you an alumnus who can determine in seconds if a historical signature has been forged, an international affairs expert who knows just about all there is to know about how Germany reconciled with its enemies after the Second World War, ethicists with a deep understanding of the moral quandaries faced by nurses every day, and a historian who probably knows more about the black market for tobacco and calico in 18th-century France than the shady characters who sold the illicit goods.</p> <p>Our specialized knowledge, what we know how to do here, is tell their stories. Enjoy.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Bacterial art <p>The School of Medicine's Department of Art as Applied to Medicine has been teaching and practicing medical illustration since 1911. This illustration, by Assistant Professor Jennifer E. Fairman, was for recent research by Johns Hopkins biophysicist Jie Xiao, published in <em>PLOS Genetics</em>. It shows part of an <em>E. coli</em> bacterium, specifically the structure of what is known as the FtsZ-ring and its associated proteins, which support and regulate cell division.</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 A test that can accurately predict long-term death risk <p><em>From 1991 to 2009, more than 58,000 people underwent standard treadmill stress tests at Detroit's Henry Ford Hospital for symptoms of heart disease: chest pain, shortness of breath, fainting, or dizziness. Haitham Ahmed, a cardiology fellow at the School of Medicine, recently led a team of researchers in a study of data generated by this program and determined which of the treadmill test variables most strongly correlated with survival over 10 years. From this analysis, the researchers hoped to quantify mortality risk more precisely. The result was the FIT Treadmill Score, an algorithm that accurately gauges long-term death risk based on treadmill exercise performance and three other important cardiovascular risk factors.</em></p> <h3>Context</h3> <p>When the researchers examined the records of the 58,020 patients, four factors stood out as important for predicting mortality over 10 years, says Ahmed. Two were age and gender. A third was maximum heart rate achieved during the stress test—the patients walked or ran on a treadmill that increased elevation and speed every three minutes (called the Bruce Protocol Treadmill Test), exercising to their maximum capacity and stopping if they experienced symptoms such as chest pain or dizziness. The last important factor was indicators of metabolic equivalents of task, or METs, achieved, a gauge of how much energy the body expends during exercise.</p> <h3>Data</h3> <p>Based on their analysis, Ahmed and the team (senior author was Michael Blaha, director of clinical research at the Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease) created a predictive algorithm, the FIT score, that factored age, gender, and the stress test results, including METs: percent of maximum predicted heart rate achieved + 12 x METs – 4 x age (+43 if female). This produced a score for each person between -200 and +200. The higher the score, the higher the predicted survival over 10 years. When the researchers applied the FIT score to the data from the 58,020 patients in the dataset, they found that it predicted with 97 percent accuracy who would still be alive 10 years after the stress test.</p> <h3>Upshot</h3> <p>Ahmed believes the FIT score better reflects the complex nature of cardiovascular health than the standard treadmill test alone. And this is important—in analyzing the Detroit data, the researchers found that cardiovascular fitness level was the single most powerful predictor of death or survival. People with stress results considered in the normal range still vary in their degree of fitness, and the FIT score produces a more nuanced assessment of their cardiovascular condition and long-term survival. Plus, the FIT score is so simple to calculate, it could be done at home by people who own personal treadmills. Treadmill manufacturers have expressed interest in incorporating the algorithm into home treadmills, and software developers are interested in creating mobile health apps that incorporate the FIT formula.</p> <h3>Conclusion</h3> <p>"We wanted to develop a test to motivate behavioral change," says Ahmed. In a time of increasing medical costs, there's value in providing a tool that can be included in home exercise equipment or mobile apps. "It's satisfying to provide information that doesn't require additional blood draws or further testing," he says. "We're now in an era when information is readily available—consumers want to know quantitative data and results. If we can give them the most specific info that we can about their own health, that's valuable."</p> <p>An ominous FIT score is not a terminal diagnosis. Patients can take steps to promote a longer life if they take a low score as a warning. Ahmed believes FIT could be more effective at prompting healthy behavioral changes. "There's a very big difference in my saying, 'Based on your treadmill test, you fall into the 40th percentile of health among women your age,' and my saying, 'If you're able to increase [your FIT score] by exercising, you can increase your chances of survival.'"</p> Thu, 04 Jun 2015 13:34:00 -0400 Dialogue <h3>No Shot</h3> <p>A very interesting article <a href="">["Plantibodies v. Ebola," Forefront, Winter 2014]</a> about studies into an Ebola therapy, which is critically needed with the ongoing outbreak in West Africa. I must, however, point out a confusing inaccuracy written in this article. There is an allusion to a "shot for malaria before traveling."</p> <p>Malaria prophylaxis is typically taken in the form of a pill; the specific pill varies depending on the geographic area to which travel is to occur (e.g., chloroquine in chloroquine-susceptible areas; mefloquine or atovaquone-proguanil in chloroquine-resistant areas, and doxycycline in areas resistant to mefloquine/atovaquone-proguanil). I'm not aware of any shot that can be given to prevent malaria that is supported by current travel medicine guidelines, and there are no vaccines that exist for parasites.</p> <p>You might learn more at the website for the PATH Malaria initiative: -vaccine-faqs.php</p> <p><strong>Lawrence C. Loh, SPH '10</strong><br /> Toronto, Ontario, Canada <div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <h3>What I Saw</h3> <p>Regarding the article <a href=",d.eXY">"Heart of Darkness" [Spring 2015]</a>, some prisoners are not getting out of solitary for days at a time. The mentally ill languish for days as they don't initiate treatment or advocate for themselves. I saw this while working at a Virginia detention center. I had to leave, as the administration was not receptive to implementing change. The mentally ill suffer greatly for crimes like trespassing, public intoxication, or other misdemeanors. I also saw prisoners after beatings by police. One guy had to have facial reconstruction. Wake up, America; the mentally ill need help.</p> <p><strong>Amanda Woodward</strong><br /> Amissville, Virginia</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <h3>Where's Gantt?</h3> <p>I'm astonished that in six pages of the article <a href=",d.eXY">"Chasing the Legend" [Winter 2014]</a>, about Professor Daniel Todes' research on Ivan Pavlov, there is not one mention of W.H. Gantt. I realize the drift of this article was intended to describe Daniel Todes' departure from the usual history and recounting of Pavlov's accomplishments, but even so, when the tumultuous 1920s are mentioned and also the influence of Pavlov on American science, it is perplexing that there is no mention of the significant working professional relationship of Hopkins' W. Horsley Gantt with Pavlov and the wider network of Soviet scientists in neurophysiology.</p> <p>In 1923, Gantt was working with the American Relief Administration to provide Soviet food supplies, and when he was introduced to Pavlov that year in Russia, the <em>Encyclopedia Brittanica</em> had already mistakenly published Pavlov's obituary. Soviet authorities reluctantly permitted Gantt to spend almost five years working with Pavlov until 1929, in which year Gantt accompanied Pavlov on his Cambridge, Massachusetts, visit. (In addition, I believe that Gantt's English translation of Pavlov's monograph on the conditional reflex was the first to be available in the U.S.)</p> <p><strong>Harvey L. Noyes, Bus '64, A&S '68 (MA)</strong><br /> Towson, Maryland</p> <p><div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <h3>Progressive Hop</h3> <p>I really enjoyed very much the article by Shale Stiller, <a href=",d.eXY">"The Earle of Homewood" [Winter 2014]</a>. It was enlightening to learn of this remarkable scholar as well as the anti-Semitism he faced. I was, however, surprised and puzzled by the statement that the Mathematics Department was unfriendly to Jewish students.</p> <p>When it came to hiring Jewish professors, Hopkins was very progressive at that time. For example, in 1877, J.J. Sylvester was invited to be a professor of mathematics at Hopkins because, being Jewish, he could not find employment in England. He was an outstanding mathematician in his day. Furthermore, Philip Hartman, another superb mathematician, received his PhD from Hopkins in 1938 and was later chairman of the department when anti-Semitism was on the decline. Solomon Golomb, another Jewish student who became an outstanding mathematician, earned his bachelor's degree at Hopkins, but later. Other distinguished Jewish mathematicians who taught at Hopkins include Tobias Dantzig, the father of George Dantzig who himself was the father of linear programming, Aurel Wintner, Nathan Jacobson, and Oscar Zariski.</p> <p>Perhaps the author was unaware of these facts.</p> <p><strong>Allan Kroopnick, Engr '82 (MS)</strong><br /> Pikesville, Maryland <div class='magazine-section-break'></div></p> <h3>Breathe Easy</h3> <p>I hope the asthma researchers referenced in <a href="">"Short of Breath," [Evidence, Spring 2015] </a> will check with me and my asthmatic ilk before they spend a lot of time and money trying to determine if city people experience more asthma than their country cousins. Either city dwellers like me have evolved to the point that their/my lungs love—indeed depend on—foul city air, or researchers have never taken a bunch of asthmatic city kids out camping en plein country air in July. Nothing will more quickly and intensely bring on a blitz of sneezing, coughing, and wheezing for me than the latter.</p> <p><strong>Frank Mitchell</strong><br /> Columbus, Ohio</p>